Calculagraph

© Brooke Clarke 2008


Calculograph
Model 110                                                                                     Model 33

Background

Calculagraph patent 583320 issued May 25, 18978 by Henry Abbott.  This was one of the first time printers.  An early use was in pool halls where a ticket would be printed using the start lever and when the table was no longer being used by the stop lever.  Inspection would show the elapsed time (or optionally the dollar amount would be printed).   This may have been the origin of the expression "Time is Money". The round style unit shown above is based on this patent.  The plating at the front of the model 110 has been worn away indicating that this unit has seen a lot of use.  It would be nice to know where that happened.

The following  description from The Clocksmith is for the first wind up version:
CALCULAGRAPH made by the Calculagraph co in New York, N.Y. USA. 
The movement is a Seth Thomas #10 (work horse) 8 day double spring balance movement. 
[bc note:  this is very similar if not the same as the movement used in the "Western Union" Self Winding Clocks]
The dial is white fired enamel with Roman numerals and Arabic 5 minute numerals. 
The bezel is iftted with thick beveled glass that is badly scratched and scarred. 
The case is sleek painted silver.  One  brass plaque across the top has
“CALCULAGRAPH- US PATENTS NOS. 424.291, 424.292, 449.192, 583.320, 679.408, 697.426, 697.427 TRADEMARK SEPT. 13, 1892, NO.21747. 
The other plaque under the dial has:
“9611-CANADIAN AND EUROPEAN PATENTS”. 
It was apparently used to bill long distance phone calls or any activity that needed to be time measured.  9” round 9 ½” tall

Note that Henry Abbott has a number of patents covering methods of making enamel watch and clock dials which were used for the Calculagraph.

A later application was for timing phone calls where the Model 33 shown at the right above was used in a similar manner.  That's to say the operator would insert a card and stamp the time when the call started then stamp it again when the call ended.  Note that the Model 33 is only connected to a power source, not the phone lines so the accuracy of the timing depended on the operator.  By 1904 Henry has patents for telephone call timers that are coupled to the phone lines, but the Model 33 was patented in 1941 and was widley used.  So maybe the 1904 type call timers were not actually used.

Henry Abbott

Henry worked as a watch smith in New York.  At that time the import duty on watch parts was lower than on complete watches, so he imported the parts and assembled watches.  Prior to inventing the Calculagraph he invented a way to convert a watch from needing a key to wind to to using the stem for both winding and setting the hands.  With his invention key wind watch movements could be converted to stem wind making them more desirable (valuable).

Description

Round Model 110 Calculagraph

This is a later version of the original round model.  The 583320 patent shows a unit that's powered by a clockwork spring, not an 110 VAC electric motor like this model 110.

Rectangular Model 33 Calculagraph

The model 33 was made expressly for use on telephone switchboards.  It's powered by a 20 VAC electric motor.  The narrow rectangular shape allows it to fit on the table part of a switch board and not take up anywhere as much space as the round model would.

Patents

180739 Winding and Setting Attachments for Watches, Henry Abbott, Jun 6, 1876, 368/213 ; 968/25 -
193312 Lever Winding and Setting Attachments for Watches, Henry Abbott, Jul 24, 1877, 368/213 -
203524 Improvement in Stem Winding Watches, Henry Abbott, May 14, 1878, 368/196 -
309909 Process of Applying Colors to Enamel Dials of Watcches and Clocks, Henry Abbott, Dec 30, 1884, 156/89.24 ; 156/235; 427/149; 428/426; 428/914
309910 Ornamenting Enameled or Glazed Surfaces, Henry Abbott, Dec 30, 1884, 264/245 ; 264/255; 425/470 -
309911 Ornamenting Enameled or Glazed Surfaces, Henry Abbott, Dec 30, 1884, 156/235 -
309912 Ornamenting Enameled or Glazed Surfaces, Henry Abbott, Dec 30, 1884, 118/500 -
309913 Ornamenting Enameled or Glazed Surfaces, Henry Abbott, Dec 30, 1884, 156/241 ; 428/914
309915 Ornamenting Enameled or Glazed Surfaces, Henry Abbott, Dec 30, 1884, 264/334 ; 156/344; 264/343
310112 Ornamentation of Glazed Enameled Surfaces, Henry Abbott, Dec 30, 1884, 156/89.24 ; 156/155 - stencil method of making clock and watch dials
335731 Stem Winding and Setting Watch, Henry Abbott, Feb 9, 1886, 368/198 -
335732 Stem Winding and Setting Mechanism for Watches, Henry Abbott, Feb 9, 1886, 368/196 - movement well run out of case
335733 Stem Winding and Setting Mechanism for Watches, Henry Abbott, Feb 9, 1886, 368/197 -
424291 Apparatus for Recording Measurements of Time, Emery M. Hamilton (assigned to Henry Abbott), Mar 25, 1890, 346/95 -
This is the start of printing a dial face like later used in the Calculagraph
424292 Apparatus for Recording Measurements of Time, Emery M. Hamilton (assigned to Henry Abbott), Mar 25, 1890, 346/95
432256 Interchangeable Stem-winding-watch Movement, Henry Abbott, Jul 15, 1890, 368/318 -
432290 Interchangeable Stem-winding-watch Movement, Henry Abbott, Jul 15, 1890, 368/318 -
432291 Interchangeable Stem-winding-watch Movement, Henry Abbott, Jul 15, 1890, 368/318 -
437371 Type Writing Machine, Henry Abbott, Sep 30, 1890, 400/666 ; 235/26 - prevents two keys from working at the same time
437372 Type Writing Machine, Henry Abbott, Sep 30, 1890, 400/396 ; 400/405.1; 400/431; 400/454; 400/471- upper & lower case letters with different colors
443032 Inking-pad for Type-writing Machines, Henry Abbott, Dec 16, 1890, 400/471 ; 400/413 -
some similarity to the Calculagraph but clearly different
449190 Tool for Clamping Type to Type-bars, Henry Abbott, Mar 31, 1891, 269/37 ; 269/47 -
449191 Platten for Type-writing Machines, Henry Abbott, Mar 31, 1891, 400/657 ; 400/656
449192 Apparatus for Recording Measurements of Time, Space or Quanity, Henry Abbott, Mar 31, 1891, 346/95 ; 346/145 -
not called a Calculagraph but is very similar to the round version in patent 583320
579121 Eyeglasses or Spectacles, Henry Abbott, Mar 23, 1897, 351/144 -
583320 Calculagraph, Henry Abbott, May 25, 1897, 346/61 - the first Calculagraph
618760 Eyeglasses or Spectacles, Henry Abbott, Jan 31, 1899, 351/149 - these predate the ones in the Movie "The Jerk".
679408 Adjustable Bearing, Henry Abbott, Jul 30, 1901, 74/586 - for the round Calculagraph operating levers
697426 Calculagraph, Henry Abbott, Apr 15, 1902, - increase efficiency and ease of operation of 583320
697427 Calculagraph, Henry Abbott, Apr 15, 1902, 346/145 - table flush mounting using a can
771853 Telephone Call Recorder, Henry Abbott, Oct 11, 1904, 346/41 ; 346/95; 379/119; 379/140 -
Uses relays connected into the telephone system to start and stop instead of manual levers
772308 Telephone Meter, Henry Abbott, Oct 11, 1904, 379/119 ; 200/14; 346/95; 377/6 - one meter per phone line, all automatic
878447 Time Printing Mechanisim, Henry Abbott, Feb 4, 1908, 346/61 - Vertical or horizontal mount, printed record contains machine serial number
RE13597 Time Printing Mechanisim, Henry Abbott, Jul 22, 1913, 346/61 -  what was changed?
1091786 Card Gate, Henry Abbott, Mar 31, 1914, 101/102 - restricts the way a card can be inserted into the round lever type Calculagraph
1175107 Two-Cycle Engine, Henry Abbott, Nov 8, 1913, 60/314 ; 123/65VB; 123/71V -
1534755 Fastener for Ink Ribbons, Henry Abbott, Apr 21, 1925, 242/584 ; 411/457; 411/921 -
1582651 Device for Automatically Shifting the Direction of Feed of an Ink Ribbon in Printing Machines, Henry Abbott, Apr 27, 1926, 101/336 ; 101/102 -
This is still the round two lever machine.
2259677 Elapsed Time Recording Device, Henry Abbott, Oct 21, 1941, 346/90 - This is the Model 33 rectangular model for telephone switchboards

Links

The Telephone on P. E. I. - Switchboard /C.O./Service Equipment! by Dave Hunter - has manual for the model 33

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page created Sep 9 2008