While learning about optics I came across the Panoramic Telescope gun sight. The thing that's very interesting is that it contains everything needed in a submarine periscope (Wiki). Panoramic means that the telescope can be panned in azimuth. But in a simple optical system when that's done the image will rotate. But in a military panoramic telescope the image stays upright. This requires a sophisticated optical system (see the Kollmorgen Periscope patent on my optics page).
Used on the M2A1 105 Howitzer(Wiki). Over 10,000 were made and used throughout W.W.II.
Popular Science, November 1942, pg 53: Two Guns for One by Hickman Powell - about using as rifle (near horizontal barrel angle) or as a Howitzer (very steep barrel angle).
"Telescope, Panoramic M12 A3, No. 12981 F.J.A., E.K. Co. 1943" is stamped at the top of the periscope tube.
At the bottom center of the reticle is "3 IN M62".
Panoramic M12 A3
No. 12981 F.J.A.
E.K. Co. 1943
Fig 4 "3 IN M62" at bottom
TM 9-2005 Vol 3 Ordinance Material - General, Vol 3, Infantry and Cavalry - Accompanying Weapons - Field Artillery, 2nd Ed, Dec 1942
Has a sentence for "Sighting Devices" where a number of them are a panoramic telescope (most are the M12).
Lists a number of guns and howitzers that use the M12 panoramic telescope. Note that a 3 Inch gun and a 75mm Gun are the same thing. The manual lists five 75mm (or 3") guns, but none of them use the M12 panoramic telescope. A number of the Guns, 155mm: M1917, M1918M1, M1, M1A1 and the 8" Howitzer M1 use the M12 sight.
Looking for TMs that cover the M12 panoramic telescope. Let me know.
TM-9-1240-236-35P link is to Liberated ManualsTM 9-1584 Telescope, Panoramic, M12, M12A1, M12A2 and M12A3. 10 June 1942
Direct Support, General Support, and Depot Maintenance Repair Parts and Special Tools List
Telescope Panoramic M12A7C (1240-768-7260),
M12A7Q (1240-917-6428) and
Dept of the Army July 1970
359: Optical: Systems and Elements
401: with image anti-rotation
751569 Altiscope or the Like, L.Y. Spear, Electric Boat Co., Filed: Mar 14, 1903, Pub: Feb 9, 1904, 359/402; 114/340 - can move + or - 30 deg from center line of sub (60 deg total).
784487 Tangent-scale telescope for guns, Carl Paul Goerz, Heinrich Korrodi, Optische Anstalt, 1905-03-07, 359/401; 359/402; 89/41.19 -
784852 Panorama-telescope, Carl Paul Goerz, Optische Anstalt, 1905-03-14, 359/401; 359/402 -
815657 Panorama-sight, Ambrose Swasey, Warner and Swasey Co, 1906-03-20, 359/401; 89/41.19; 359/402-
829121 Telescope for submarine and submergible boats, Edmund Neumayer, Heinrich Jacob, Optische Anstalt,1906-08-21, 359/401; 114/340; 359/402 -
For Submarine. Note the eyepiece is always in the same azimuth.
To look around a wheel drives a vertical shaft and a prism at the top of the periscope is rotated.
873228 Telescope, Arwed Hahn, 1907-12-10, 359/401; 359/402; 89/41.19 - for guns
882762 Panoramic telescope, Heinrich Jacob, Optische Anstalt,1908-03-24, 359/733; 359/401; 359/725 - uses lenses instead of prisms
1006230 Periscope, Frederick L G Kollmorgen, Keuffel and Esser, 1911-10-17, 359/401; 114/340; 89/36.14; 359/402, -
Frederick Kollmorgen founded Kollmorgen Optical Co. and then was the assignee on patents, mostly related to periscopes.
History of Kollmorgen.pdf
A part of the 006230 patent appears on pdf page 5 of the history.
1134388 Optical instrument, Frederick L G Kollmorgen, Keuffel and Esser,1915-04-06, 356/21; 356/7; 359/405- for submarines
Unit History -The 1/92nd Field Artillery Association - Vietnam - M1A1 Cannon Technical Data, Specs -