Faradic Instruments

© Brooke Clarke 2007 - 2022

Quackery Still Going On
    Bullshit Detection
    Quack Ideas
    Hoax Ideas
    Induction (Ruhmkorff) Coils
    Magneto-electric Machine
    Violet Ray
    Chloride of Silver Dry Cell Battery Company
Dr Jerome Kidders Celebrated Electro-Magnetic Machine
Interesting Faradic Instrument


Michael Faraday discovered a number of the aspects relating to electricity and magnetism, although Joseph Henry discovered how to make strong electromagnets.  One of the applications of Faraday's work is called Faradic and relates to using AC electricity in medicine to cure various problems.  This was popular from the late 1800s up to 1938 when the U.S. government determined it had no power to cure anything and regulated the advertising that was allowed.

Faraday collected his papers on Electrical and Magnetic Research into three volumes for the Royal Society and wrote the preface to volume one is 1839 and volume 3 in 1855.  This series of papers is printed in volume 45 of the Great Books of the Western World by Mortimer Adler.  It turns out these are in my garage.

In his first experiment in 1831 he is using bare 1/20" diameter copper wire.  Sounds like the wire Henry used.  Insulated by separating with twine between turns and using calico cloth between layers.

There were a number of different ways electricity was applied to humans for medical purposes, now known as quack medicine (Wiki), but at the time was mainstream medicine.   Luigi Calvani (Wiki) found that a frogs legs would move if wires were connected in a specific way.  He named this "animal electricity" (Wiki: Galvanism) because he thought the wires were just rerouting the electricity generated by the dead frog legs.  He was wrong, but ever since there are people who believe that electricity is a "life force".  Frankenstein (Wiki) was brought to life using the electricity from lightening.
Wiki: Pathological science "..is the process by which "people are tricked into false results ... by subjective effects, wishful thinking or threshold interactions"
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Science and Pseudo-Science - Karl Popper (Wiki) - Falsifiability (Wiki) & Predictability (Wiki) are requirements of a valid scientific proposition.


Voltamp (Wiki)must have made quite a number of the Faradic Medical Instruments since they show up a lot on eBay.   Sears & Roebuck Co. and Montgomery Wards Co. carried these or another brand in their catalogs.  The common configuration is a wooden box that would hold 1, 2 or 3 No. 6 dry cells along with the induction coil and some wire leads with applicators for the body like metal cylinders, plates or sponges.  The Voltamp product introduced in 1901 is called a "Portable Electric Battery".

This company made model trains from 1903 to 1922 then sold that product line to Boucher Mfg Co (Wiki). 
The small electric motor patents probably relate to the toy train products?
There were a number of different models of the Voltamp Portable Electric Battery where the models were numbered from No. 1.

No. 0 ?

I call it No. 0 since it clearly predates the No. 1 below.  It does not have the brass or copper tube as part of the coil to regulate the secondary voltage so predates the 620027 Induction Coil patent issued, Feb 21,1899 (filed Dec 7, 1898.  It's more than just a breadboard but does not include a box.  The wiring method of using slots in the bottom of the board is identical to the No. 1 below (see Fig 2 and Fig 4 above)
There is a post anchored to the base board to hold the armature - spring - weight but in the No. 1 the post has been replaced by a bracket on the end of the coil.  That would allow testing the coil prior to mounting it on the top board.
                      Faradic Medical Instrument (Quack)
                    Faradic Medical Instrument (Quack)
Right terminals are for battery
Left terminals are for battery
VOLTAMP in lower right

This may have been a part of a boxed unit.  A recent eBay add for a "Unusual Early Wet Battery Galvano-Faradic Quack Machine" has this descriptive text:
A great, early, walnut case (7 3/4 X 8 1/4 X 6 inches wide closed), quack medical machine made by the Galvano Faradic Mfg Co of New York. It originally had a wet battery in the case, now missing, for its power. It has its 2 hand electrodes but is missing the wires. Still, few of these could have survived, the wet cell battery is easy to spill and the acid would have eventually destroyed the machine. There is a little minor staining on the bottom of the case (from the acid) otherwise what is left is in great condition.

This coil contains the Fuld (Voltamp) patented sliding sleeve to control the strength of the output.

There is a board about this size that can be removed from the box (along with the battery selector switch board of similar size) to allow access to the wet battery.

No. 1

Fig 1 Voltamp output at top, battery on right
Fig 2 Bottom showing wiring and VOLTAMP at lower right
Voltamp No.
                  1 Lid Open
Voltamp Battery
                  No. 1 bottom of board
Fig 3 Voltamp No. 1 Lid Open
Fig 4 No. 1 made to hold No. 6 Dry Cell
Voltamp No. 1

Fig 5 Voltamp No. 1 Set

The label mentions the following patents by date:
D29977 Design for a Current Regulator Case, , Manes E. Fuld, Jan 10, 1899, D13/125 ; D8/DIG.2 - potentiometer for use with medical equipment
620027 Induction Coil, Manes E. Fuld, Feb 21,1899, 336/75 ; 336/196; 336/213; 336/219
627917 Dry Cell, Manes E. Fuld, June 27, 1899, 429/134 ; 429/171; 429/65
and shows a hand written serial number of 5375.

Included with this unit was a copy of "Electro-Medical Guide, formerly "Faradic Hints", ninth edition of 100,000.  This 48 page booklet features the No. 6 "Majestic" on the rear cover.  copyright 1916.

The top board and all the accessory electrodes have sockets that accept standard phone Tip pins.  The wooden handled electrodes and the top board have tapered holes and the metal plate has the socket formed by a stamping operation.

Testing with a 1.5 volt "F" cell it does not run, but with two series cells ( 3 volts) it runs well.  It may have been designed to run on a Voltamp brand 3 volt battery?  If you know please tell me.

10 May 2008 - When two series connected "D" cells are used and the vibrator screw adjusted for loudest sound the frequency is around 800 Hz and the duty cycle around 80%.  If the screw is backed out the frequency goes down along with the duty cycle.  Around 300 Hz the duty cycle is near 50%.  If at the 50% setting a 1.5 Volt battery is connected the vibrator does not self start, but if you flick the armature it will keep running.

No. 2

No. 3

No. 4

No. 5

No. 6 Voltamp Medical Battery No. 6 "Majestic"

The large metal cylinder is a Voltamp brand 3 Volt dry cell battery.
Guess: the large shiny cylinder is a battery similar to the No. 6 except it has a rectangular metal post in the top center with a screw for making electrical connection.  You can see the screw and a slotted metal contact in the photo below.

Voltamp No. 6 Portable
          Electric Battery

No. 7

Voltamp No. 7 Portable
          Electric Battery

Except for the "No. 7" on the label, this looks identical to the No. 1.
If you know the difference please tell me.

No. 8

No. 9

No. 10

Voltamp No. 10 Portable
          Electric Battery

No. 11

No. 12

Voltamp No. 12
          Medical Device

Quackery Still Going On


It's my understanding that the FDA allows drugs that are harmless and medical devices that are harmless (must meet certain rules) to be sold Over The Counter (OTC) without a prescription.  For example someone can sell a bottle of water as homeopathic medicine as long as they do not make any claims that it will cure a disease.  So if you look at the label it will not make any claims, but the store clerk or a radio show will say such and such is good for some condition.

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 (Wiki) is the basis of what the FDA does.   In a similar manner the Wheeler–Lea Act of 1938 (Wiki) is about how those products are advertized and is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission (Wiki: FTC).  The FTC got started with the The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 (Wiki).  These laws in large part were passed after the book 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs (Wiki) described the then current state of medicines.

In a like manner there are a number of medical devices sold where the advertising and manuals will have statements saying they are not medical cures, the people promoting them make those claims.

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)

Some years ago the German government spent something like $500,000 to investigate dowsing with the result that it didn't work.  My thought was what a waste of their taxpayers money on something that's well know to not work based on scientific testing.  But the U.S. tops them with the NCCAM which has spent about $3,000,000,000 (that's three Billion dollars) from 1999 to 2009 and does not have a single positive test result.  See the paper:  MEASURING MYTHOLOGY: Startling Concepts in NCCAM Grants - In many cases after spending millions of dollars on a single study there is no final paper with a conclusion.  This was put in place by

See my Science paragraph on the Diet & Nutrition web page.

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (Wiki DSHEA GovTrack)

It turns out that a large number of the problems facing not just the U.S. but the world are the direct result of the unintended consequences (Wiki) of laws that have been passed.  This is an example of that.  This law was the result of the efforts of Senator Tom Harkin and Orin Hatch.

Tom Harkin Tips His Hand - Harkin gets a lot of his campaign contributions from Herbalife employees.
Tom Harkin, NCCAM, health care reform, and a cancer treatment that is worse than useless

Utah Senator Orrin Hatch: A pit bull in defense of the supplement industry
Support Is Mutual for Senator and Utah Industry - NYT - In Utah are: Xango, 4 Life Research, Neways which makes Youthinol "  He was the chief author of a federal law enacted 17 years ago that allows companies to make general health claims about their products, but exempts them from federal reviews of their safety or effectiveness before they go to market.... His son Scott Hatch, is a longtime industry lobbyist in Washington, as are at least five of the senator’s former aides. Mr. Hatch’s grandson and son-in-law increase revenue at their chiropractic clinic near here by selling herbal and nutritional treatments, including $35 “thyroid dysfunction” injections and a weight-loss product, “Slim and Sassy Metabolic Blend.” And Mr. Hatch’s former law partner owns Pharmics, a small nutritional supplement company in Salt Lake City."

Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Dr. Oz and Nutritional Supplements -

Bullshit Detection

October 2016 Update - this paper won the 2016 Ig Nobel (Wiki) peace prize.  YouTube Video of the event.
The paper On the reception and detection of pseudo-profound bullshit (in Judgment and Decision Making, Vol. 10, No. 6, November 2015, pp. 549–563) by Gordon Pennycook James Allan Cheyne† Nathaniel Barr‡ Derek J. Koehler†, Jonathan A. Fugelsang†  has caused a lot of comment and discussion.   The paper used a couple of on line bullshit generators:

New Age Bullshit Generator - click the button at the top of the page labeled Reionize Electrons.  You get a whole page of bullshit.
The enigmatic wisdom of Deepak Chopra - click Receive More Wisdom for a new saying.
Some comments:
I Don’t Know What You Mean Posted on Dec. 11, 2015 by
Detecting BS  Dec 03 2015 Published by   on the NeuroLogica Blog - Steven is also part of Science-Based Medicine -

Skeptic magazine: The Conceptual Penis as a Social Construct: A Sokal-Style Hoax on Gender Studies, Boghossian & Lindsay, 2017 May 20 - paper accepted and published in peer reviewed journal.  (Archived copy of paper) The authors made use of the Postmodern Generator - every time the page is opened a new scientific paper is shown complete with fake references. 

In 1966 Alan Sokal (Wiki, Sokal Affair) wrote a fake paper and it was accepted and published as a real article. 

Testing Claims

The Observer - The 10 Commandments of Helping Students Distinguish Science from Pseudoscience in Psychology
By Scott O. Lilienfeld
The Baloney Detection Kit - Google - Carl Sagan - Michael Shermer (YouTube, TED: The pattern behind self-deception, TED: Why people believe weird things) -

Quack Ideas

It's amazing how many people believe in these ideas as if they were factual.  The local radio station has programs based on some of them and when there are guests the discussions make for interesting listening, i.e. they are talking nonsense but do it as if it were real.  The problem is that if they make any decisions based on false ideas then they're going to be disappointed and/or deluded.

2012 millenarianism (Wiki) - December, 2012 marks the ending of the current Long Count Calendar i.e.the end of this World
Maya calendar (Wiki) - "Misinterpretation of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar is the basis for a New Age belief that a cataclysm will take place on December 21, 2012. December 21, 2012 is simply the first day of the 14th b'ak'tun. (sort of a Y2K thing i.e. 12/31/99 is the end of the world).
Acupressure (Wiki) -
 like Acupuncture except pressure replaces the needles
Acupuncture (Wiki) - also see Science on my Diet & Nutrition web page.
needles into specific points on the body to relieve pain or for therapeutic purposes
Be Wary of Acupuncture, Qigong, and "Chinese Medicine"
See the book Trick or Treatment: The Undeniable Facts about Alternative Medicine by Simon Singh for a double blind test where acupuncture fails to have any effect.
Acupuncture and Modern Bloodletting - also has roots in astrology
Age regression in therapy (Wiki) -
 the patient returns to an earlier stage of life in order to explore a memory or to get in touch with some difficult-to-access aspect of their personality
Albert Abrams (Wiki)
inventing machines which he claimed could diagnose and cure almost any disease ( Dynomizer, Spondylotherapy and ERA,  Spondylotherapy).  In the 1920s, i.e. before the 1936 FDA ruling that ended most quack devices.
6684108 Therapeutic and diagnostic apparatus and method, Surbeck et al,  Jan 27, 2004 - has a lot of praise for Albert and Radioscope plans
    2545087 Electrical Therapeutic Device, (Electronic Medical Foundation, SF)
Allopathic medicine (Wiki)
An old term ... now referred to as heroic medicine - means all medicine that's not based on homeopathy
Alternative medicine (Wiki)  -
 any healing practice "that does not fall within the realm of conventional medicine
Aroma therapy (Wiki) - NCCAM
 uses volatile plant materials, known as essential oils, and similar aromatic compounds from plants, for the purpose of improving a person's mood, cognitive function or health
Ancient astronauts (Wiki) -
that intelligent extraterrestrial beings have visited Earth and that this contact is linked to the origins or development of human cultures, technologies, and/or religions.
Anthroposophical medicine  (Wiki) - Rudolf Steiner
 therapies are intended to enhance a patient's capacities to heal
Antineoplastons (Wiki: Burzynski Clinic)
           " ...offering unproven cancer treatment."
Aromatherapy (Wiki) -
a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile plant materials, known as essential oils, and other aromatic compounds for the purpose of altering a person's mood, cognitive function or health. The effectiveness of aromatherapy is yet to be scientifically proven
Aromatherapy: Making Dollars out of Scents
Astral Body (Wiki)
a subtle body posited by many religious philosophers, intermediate between the intelligent soul and the physical body, composed of a subtle material.
Astrology (Wiki) -
 belief which holds that the relative positions of celestial bodies and related details can provide information about personality, human affairs, and other terrestrial matters
Planetary Tuning Fork Frequencies
Earth Day
Earth Year
Earth Sidereal
Platonic Year
Synod Moon
Lunar Culmination
Moon Sidereal

Attachment therapy (Wiki) -
 children's problems are ascribed to an inability to attach to their new parents because of suppressed rage due to past maltreatment and abandonment
Audio-Homoepathy (EEVblog) - the false belief that factors way beyond human hearing are important enough to spend orders of magnitude more for audio equipment.
Aura (paranormal) (Wiki) -
 a field of subtle, luminous radiation supposedly surrounding a person or object that some people are claimed to be capable of observing by means of their third eye
Ayurvedic (Wiki)
           According to a 1990 study on ayurvedic medicines in India, 41 percent of the products tested contained arsenic, and 64 percent contained lead and mercury.
           A Few Thoughts on Ayurvedic Mumbo-Jumbo
Bales Scientific Infrared Scanner & Bales Scientific’s Photonic Stimulator -
 these were taken off the market in March of 2000 after the FDA sent them a letter.
Bates method for better eyesight (Wiki) -
 centered around visualization and movement to remove "strain" that caused problems
Bendini Machine (Wiki)
        This device consists of a "motor" that's powered from a battery and charges another battery.  But after watching a large number of YouTube videos have never seen anyone measure
        the efficiency.  This is true of all the "Over Unity" machine YouTube videos.  If you know of one where they do measure efficiency please let me know.
        But, the Bedini machines are great kinetic sculptures.
        EEVblog #708 - Free Energy Overunity BULLSHIT!
Bermuda Triangle  (Wiki) - a region in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean in which a number of aircraft and surface vessels are alleged to have disappeared in mysterious circumstances
Biorhythms (Wiki) -
 a hypothetical cycle in physiological, emotional, or intellectual well-being or prowess
Bloodletting (Wiki) -
For about 2000 years, ending about the time that it killed George Washington, it was a common medical procedure.  They did not know about the circulation of blood but instead thought it was just in different parts of the body and had gone bad, hence the need to remove it.
The book Trick or Treatment has quite a discussion of bloodletting.
Bob (Robert) Beck Protocol (Wiki)
            This is pseudo science.  PCR (Wiki) is a process to get more DNA so that an analysis can be done, it's not a test in and of itself.  It requires a bio lab with extreme cleanliness to
             prevent the amplification of unwanted DNA.  It is not a "test" that you order.  The way Bob uses technical terms demonstrates that he doesn't know what they mean.
            To learn why the flash capacitor driving a home wound coil will not develop anywhere near the claimed current/effect see Chapter 1 "Electromagnetism by Charles M. Epstiein in the
            book The Oxford Handbook of Transcranial Stimulation ISBN 978-0-19-856892-6, 2007  I looked into making a Transcranial Stimulator, but the voltages and currents
            necessary for that application are not something I'd want anywhere near my head. 
            The system described in Chapter 2 uses a 5 uH coil, 200 uF cap, R=50 milli Ohms and V=2800.
            Who issued the "D.Sc." after his name?
CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine) (Wiki)
"...is any healing practice "that does not fall within the realm of conventional medicine": Acupuncture · Anthroposophic medicine · Ayurveda · Chiropractic · Herbalism · Homeopathy · Naturopathy · Siddha medicine · Traditional medicine (Chinese · Mongolian · Tibetan) · Unani; Whole medical systems · Mind-body interventions · Biologically based therapies · Manipulative therapy · Energy therapies
Channeling aka Mediumship (Wiki) -
 ...is the claimed ability of a person (the medium) to experience contact with spirits of the dead, angels, demons or other immaterial entities
Characterology (Wiki) -
 character reading combining revised physiognomy, reconstructed phrenology and amplified pathognomy, with ethnology, sociology and anthropology
Chakra (Wiki) -
 Seven major chakras or energy centers (also understood as wheels of light) are generally believed to exist, located within the subtle body
See my Singing Bowl web page
Tuning Fork Frequencies associated:
194.18 Root
210.42 Sacral
136.10 Heart
141.27 Throat
126.22 Solar Plexus
221.23 3rd Eye
172.06 Crown

Chelation therapy (Wiki)
Although this is a valid medical method of removing heavy metals, when used in alternative medicine for removing calcium or toxins it's a bogus idea.
Chiropractic (Wiki) - B. J. Palmer
 diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine, under the hypothesis that these disorders affect general health via the nervous system.  No real evidence has ever been presented showing that a given chiropractic treatment alters the position of any vertebrae.
Trick or Treatment: The Undeniable Facts about Alternative Medicine (2009) by Simon Singh - chapter on chiropractic scientific testing
Why we sued Simon Singh (BC: and lost): the British Chiropractic Association speaks -
Chromotherapy (Color therapy) (Wiki) -
 a therapist trained in chromotherapy can use color and light to balance energy wherever a person's body be lacking, be it physical, emotional, spiritual, or mental.
The name Darius Dinshah appears in relation to this topic, but he has no Wiki page.
Clairvoyance (Wiki)
the ability to gain information about an object, person, location or physical event through means other than the known human senses
See the movie Suspect Zero (IMDB)
Colloidal Silver (Wiki) -
Silver is not an essential mineral in humans; there is no dietary requirement for silver, and no such thing as a silver "deficiency".
Rosemary's Story - skin turned gray because of silver in nose drops.
Colon cleansing (Wiki) - colonic irrigation
 intended to remove fecal waste and unidentified toxins from the colon and intestinal tract
Color Light Therapy - see Chromotherapy above.
Copper healing (Wiki) -
 treatment of adverse health and beauty conditions through continued exposure to copper
Craniosacral therapy (Wiki) -
 session involves the therapist placing their hands on the patient, which they say allows them to tune into what they call the craniosacral system
Creation science (Wiki) -
 movement within creationism which attempts to provide support for the religious Genesis account of creation, and disprove accepted scientific facts
Idiot America by Charles P. Pierce has some interesting information on this topic.
Cryptobotany (Wiki) -
 study of various exotic plants which are not believed to exist by the scientific community, but which exist in myth, literature or unsubstantiated reports
Cryptomechanics (Wiki) -
 search for machines which are considered to be legendary
Crystal Ball (Wiki)
as an aid clairvoyance
Crystal healing (Wiki) -
 employs stones and crystals as healing tools
Cupping, Fire (Wiki) -
placing cups containing reduced air pressure (suction) on the skin. It is known in local languages as badkesh, bahnkes, bekam, buhang, bentusa, kuyukaku, gak hoi, hijama, and many other names.
Deepak Chopra (Wiki)
          In 1998, Chopra was awarded the satirical Ig Nobel Prize in physics for "his unique interpretation of quantum physics as it applies to life, liberty, and the pursuit of economic happiness"
Detoxification (Wiki: Detox, Ritual purification, OCD)
          Body cleansing and detoxification have been referred to as an elaborate hoax used by con artists to cure nonexistent illnesses.
          "Detoxification" with Pills and Fasting"
          The Detox Scam: How to spot it, and how to avoid it
Detoxification foot pads (Wiki)
- allegedly pull toxins from the body through the bottom of the feet. (there is no mechanism to get rid of toxins through the skin.)
Detoxification foot wash (Wiki) - same idea as the foot pads - see ad <- if this link is broken they have taken down the ad
Detoxifying foot bath quackery - Build your own
The Aqua Detox Scam
Dianetics (Wiki) -
 a set of ideas and practices regarding the metaphysical relationship between the mind and body that were developed by science fiction author L. Ron Hubbard
Diapulse (aka Magnatherm, )- operate at about 27 MHz
FDA - Warning letter Aug 4, 1999, See: Diathermy (the name Diapulse seems to have been choosen so that it starts with the same letters as Diathermy.)
High-frequency pulsed electromagnetic energy in tinnitus treatment.-
CONCLUSION: High-frequency pulsed electromagnetic energy (Diapulse) at the settings used in the study showed no role in the therapy of patients with chronic tinnitus.
Diathermy (Wiki) - (FDA)
These RF generators operated at about 27 MHz (one of the ISM bands (Wiki)).  They were banned by the FDA for medical cures.
FDA: "It is the opinion of FDA and the consensus of experts that pulsing the output of r.f. diathermy (as opposed to continuous wave) produces no extra beneficial therapeutic effects. Any physiological responses produced by pulsed r.f. diathermy are attributable to heat produced by the average power output. (see: Diapluse)
Dirty Electricity (no Wiki)
Claims that signals on the power lines in the frequency range up to 100 kHz causes all kinds of problems.  No scientific studies are provided, but you can buy: a Graham-Stetzer filter, Graham-Stetzer meter or book about it.  Note there is no Wiki for Graham-Stetzer, i.e. there's no such a thing.  The filter just plugs into an electrical outlet, it's not of the type with an input and output, so will not even do what's claimed.
Discovery Institute (Wiki)
        ...an explicitly Christian conservative organization and point to the institute's own publications and the statements of its members that endorse a religious ideology...
        "Though the Discovery Institute describes itself as a think tank 'specializing in national and international affairs,' the group's real purpose is
         to undercut church-state separation and turn public schools into religious indoctrination centers."
Divination (Wiki) -
the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of a standardized process or ritual.
Donnelly, Ignatius L. (Wiki) -
wrote Atlantis: The Antediluvian World (Wiki) and started pseudo science
Dowsing -
 Pendula for Divination (Wiki) - a practice that attempts to locate hidden water wells, buried metals or ores, without the use of scientific apparatus
Dr. Oz (Wiki)
                    The Great and Powerful Oz versus science and research ethics
E-Meter (Wiki) - Mathison Electropsychometer
Used by Scientology
2799269 Electropsychometer or Bioelectric Instrument, Volney Mathison, Jul 16 1957, 600/547- Vacuum tubes
2684670 Electropsychometer or Bioelectric Instrument, Volney Mathison, Jul 27 1954, 600/547 - Vacuum tubes
2810383 Electropsychometer or Bioelectric Instrument, Volney Mathison, Oct 22 1957, 600/547- Vacuum tubes
Ear candling (Wiki) -
 improve general health and well-being by lighting one end of a hollow candle and placing the other end in the ear canal.
Electric Band (Wiki)
636881 Electric Band, J.M. Wolkosky, Nov 14 1899, 607/149 - made from copper and zinc. "beneficial results have been derived, and cases of neuralgia in all it's forms, nervous prostration, hysteria, nervous exhaustion, nervous headache, lumbage, sciatica, rheumatic fever and muscular rheumatism have been cured by the use of..."
Electrohomeopathy (Wiki) -
 the use of electrical devices in conjunction with homeopathy
Electronic voice phenomenon (Wiki) -
 electronically captured sounds that resemble speech, but are not the result of intentional voice recordings
Electrodiagnostic (Wiki)
        Quack "Electrodiagnostic" Devices 
Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) (Wiki)
        Some people fear EMFs more than they should.  See my web page Measuring EMFs.
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS) (Wiki) (Skeptic magazine) -
 people claim to experience medical symptoms that they believe are caused by exposure to electromagnetic fields.
See: Measuring EMFs,  DT-1130 Electromagnetic Radiation Detector
Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) (Wiki) -
is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) certifies and releases EMS devices into two broad categories: over-the counter devices (OTC), and prescription devices. OTC devices are marketable only for muscle toning; prescription devices can only be purchased with a medical prescription for therapy  (also see TENS)
Energy Medicine (Wiki) , aka energy therapy, energy healing, or spiritual healing
    a healer can channel healing energy into the person seeking help by different methods: hands-on, hands-off, and distant (or absent) where the patient and healer are in different locations
Erich Von Däniken (Wiki) -
 author of Chariots of the Gods?
Eugenics (Wiki) -
 discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects a core tenet of some of the policies behind Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime
Extra-sensory perception ESP (Wiki) -
 involves reception of information not gained through the recognized senses and not inferred from previous experience
Extraterrestrial hypothesis (Wiki) -
 that some (UFOs are best explained as being extraterrestrial life or space aliens from other planets  visiting Earth
Faith (Wiki)
    In the book A Manual for Creating Atheists by Peter Boghossian, 2013 He makes the case that faith is a poor Epistemology (Wiki).
    Since faith is the poorest way to know what's true it results in those who employ it making poor decisions.
    On the other end of the spectrum of ways to know what's true is the scientific method (Wiki).
    Starting after W.W.II the vast majority of scientists in the U.S. believed that a "low fat" diet was healthy.
    That misconception lasted for about 50 years, killing millions of people.
    See my Diet and Nutrition web page for more about that.  Also you can find out which U.S. Presidents were killed by doctors.
    While looking at books on diet and nutrition I came across books based on the Bible and other woo-woo ideas like on this web page so am adding more entries here.
Faith healing (Wiki) -
 religious belief ("faith") can bring about healing
Faradic  - Defined as "Produced by or associated with electrical induction."
     this web page started because of the very popular Faradic devices which disappeared when the FTC & FDA required proof that medical treatments worked in order to
    advertize them.  Prior to that many main stream "scientists" believed in these devices and millions of them were sold.
Feng Shui (Wiki) -
Two types:
1) Traditional - based on compass and common sense
2) modern (Tantric, black sect (Wiki)) based on front door direction - no basis, see Traditional Chinese Medicine
Fortune-telling (Wiki) -
 the practice of predicting the future, usually of an individual, through mystical or supernatural means  for money
FD-47 Fuel Doctor (official web page) - Offered in the Heartland America Oct 2010 flyer
Was: $79.99 Now only: $49.99.  Plugs into cigarette lighter and "stabilizes" you electrical system to improve gas mileage. "approved by Certified EPA Test Facility, Installs in seconds, Patent Pending (no pending patent with phrase "fuel doctor").
Galenic medicine (Wiki: Galen, Humorism, Ayurveda, Four temperaments)
            A pre dark age medical belief that we know today is not true.  Bloodletting (see above) killed U.S. president Washington and was accepted in the 18th century.
Geomancy (Wiki) -
a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, rocks, or sand
Georges Lakhovsky Multiple Wave Oscillator (Wiki)
author of a book "The Secret of Life: Electricity, Radiation and Your Body" (French) in which he claimed and attempted to demonstrate that good or bad health was determined by the relative health of these cellular oscillations, and bacteria, cancers, and other pathogens corrupted them, causing interference with these oscillations
1962565  Apparatus with Circuits Oscillating under Multiple Wave Lengths, Georges Lakhovsky,Jun 12 1934  343/856 ; 333/220; 343/700R; 343/865; 343/890; 343/896; 343/899 - this is prior to the 1936 FDA ruling on quack medical devices.
2351055 Tube for Producing Multiple Wave Lengths, G. Lakhovsky, Jun 13 1944, 315/53 ; 313/256; 313/301; 313/567; 315/34; 315/40; 315/54; 315/57; 315/58; 336/105; 336/170; 336/174; 336/182; 336/208; 336/92; 343/701; 343/872; 343/895
2656839 Electrotherapeutic Oscillator, Clarence B. Howard, Oct 27 1953, 331/60 ; 331/96; 336/170; 336/186; 336/196; 343/720; 343/744; 343/745; 343/895; 343/899; 600/13; 607/101
6217604 Method for treating diseased states, Larry Azure, James David Girard, Apr 17, 2001, 607/88 ; 600/14; 607/1 -
Gerson Therapy (Wiki) -
an alternative dietary therapy which claimed it could cure cancer and most chronic, degenerative diseases
Ghost hunting (Wiki) -
 the process of investigating locations said to be haunted by ghosts
Ginkgo (Wiki) - NCCAM
"When taken following the manufacturer's instructions, ginkgo provides no measurable benefit in memory or related cognitive function to adults with healthy cognitive function."
Graphology (Wiki) -
 the study and analysis of handwriting especially in relation to human psychology
Graston Technique (Wiki)
... is a modification of traditional hands-on soft tissue mobilization that uses specifically designed instruments to allow the therapist to introduce a controlled amount of microtrauma into an area of excessive scar and/or soft tissue fibrosis, hoping that this will invoke an inflammatory response that will augment the healing process.
The Graston Technique – Inducing Microtrauma with Instruments
HAARP (Wiki, Official web page)
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program - a basis of many conspiracy theories (Wiki)
Healing Water (Subtle Energy) (Wiki)
Total BS.
Herbalism (Wiki) - NNCAM
 folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts
For those that I looked at on the NNCAM web page they have been shown to have either no effect as claimed or inconclusive test results.
Heroic Medicine (Wiki)
"During the "Age of Heroic Medicine" (1780–1850),[3] educated professional physicians aggressively practiced "heroic medicine," including bloodletting (venesection), intestinal purging (calomel), vomiting (tartar emetic), profuse sweating (diaphoretics) and blistering, stressing already weakened bodies
Hieronymus machine (Wiki) -
  machines which allegedly worked by analogy or symbolism, being directed by psi or ESP powers. patent 2482773
Homeopathy (Wiki) -
 treats patients with heavily diluted preparations which are thought to cause effects similar to the symptoms presented
Note that Homeopathy was developed in 1796 long before Avogadro's number (Wiki) was known as of 1865.
 1995 CPG Sec. 400.400 Conditions Under Which Homeopathic Drugs May be Marketed - pseudoscience officially allowed by the FDA starting in 1938 (Wiki) where they were grandfathered.  The UK and Germany are in the process of taking homeopathic "cures" off their insurance coverage.  See Quackery Still Going On
Hongcheng Magic Liquid (Wiki) -
 could turn regular water into a fuel as flammable as petrol by simply dissolving a few drops of his liquid
Horoscope (Wiki) -
In astrology, a horoscope is a chart or diagram representing the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, the astrological aspects, and sensitive angles at the time of an event, such as the moment of a person's birth.
Human enhancement (Wiki) -
any attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the human body through natural or artificial means
Humorism (Wiki)
                "an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person - known as humors or humours - directly influences their temperament and health"
                Naturopathy Embraces the Four Humors - Textbook of Natural Medicine Chapter 49 "Unani Medicine” (Wiki)
Hutchison effect (Wiki) -
Hutchison claims to have discovered a number of unusual phenomena, while trying to duplicate experiments done by Nikola Tesla.
Hypnosis (Wiki) - Hypnotherapy
Hypnosis is a mental state (state theory) or set of attitudes and beliefs (non-state theory) usually induced by a procedure known as a hypnotic induction, which is commonly composed of a long series of preliminary instructions and suggestions.  Many of the claims are bunk.
I Ching (Book of Changes) (Wiki) -
a divination system comparable to Western geomancy or the West African Ifá system
Innate intelligence (Wiki) -
a chiropractic term to describe the organizing properties of living things.
Institute of Noetic Sciences (Wiki) -
bibliography on the physical and psychological effects of meditation, a spontaneous remission bibliography, and studies on the efficacy of compassionate intention on healing in AIDS patients. The institute has also conducted a number of parapsychological studies into extra-sensory perception, lucid dreaming, and presentiment
Intelligent design (Wiki) -
Proposed by William Paley in the early 1800s. Paley inspired Darwin and Richard Dawkins to write books explaining how he got it all wrong. See my Atheist  web page.
Ionized bracelet (Wiki) -
a type of metal jewelry purported to affect the chi of the wearer
Iridology (Wiki) -
an alternative medicine technique whose proponents believe that patterns, colors, and other characteristics of the iris can be examined to determine information about a patient's systemic health.
James Randi (Wiki) -
best known as a challenger of paranormal claims and pseudoscience.  http://www.randi.org
Japhetic theory (Wiki) -
a term used to describe a linguistic theory developed by the Soviet linguist Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr (1864–1934). In linguistics it can be compared to Lysenkoism in biology: a theory that was promoted and supported for ideological rather than scientific reasons, because it was thought to represent "proletarian science" as opposed to "bourgeois science."
Jenny McCarthy (Wiki) -
claims that vaccines cause autism and that chelation therapy is effective against autism.  A very destructive person.
Junk Science & Pseudoscience
            Skeptics Dictionary - J - Junk Science & Pseudoscience alphabetical list of topics
Kangen Water
Water that's treated (using a very expensive machine) that's supposed to have curative properties.  There is a factory web page with certificates, but none of them has to do with technical subjects, instead they are things like a trademark, etc.  There is nothing on the FDA web page for either Kangen or Enagic
Keely, J.E.W. (Wiki)
            Claimed to have invented a fuel less motor, but was using a hidden compressed air power source
Klee Irwin (Wiki) -
claims herbal and nutrient based solutions can help with prostate health, menopause, sexual dysfunction, disease prevention, heart health, joint pain, digestive health and many other conditions.
Kinesiology (Wiki) -
While there are valid needs to study human movement, many of the practioners are making unverified claims.
Kirlian Photography (Wiki) -
The Kirlian technique is contact photography, in which the subject is in direct contact with a film placed upon a metal plate charged with high voltage, high frequency electricity.
Kronos: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Synthesis (Wiki)
published articles on a wide range of subjects as diverse as ancient history, catastrophism and mythology.
Laundry ball (Wiki) -
a product that is promoted as an alternative to cleaning garments with laundry detergent, and are also known as laundry detergent alternatives. Some products in this category have been sold by participants in multilevel marketing programs
Laying on of hands (Wiki) -
practice is used as both a symbolic and formal method of invoking the Holy Spirit during baptisms, healing services, blessings, and ordination of priests, ministers, elders, deacons, and other church officers, along with a variety of other church sacraments and holy ceremonies as well as for medical use.
also see Therapeutic touch
Leakey Gut (Wiki)
            "Leaky gut syndrome is a medically unrecognised condition which some alternative health practitioners claim is the cause of a wide range of serious long-term conditions,
              including diabetes, lupus, and multiple sclerosis."
Leuchter report (Wiki) -
For the defense in the trial of Holocaust denier Ernst Zündel, Leuchter compiled the report in 1988
Levitation (Wiki) -
Although there are a number of valid scientific types of levitation, there are also "spiritual" levitation frauds.
Lipid therapy (Wiki) -
a controversial medical technique that entails the injection and expulsion of fats and lipids, which proponents claim can improve cognitive and memory function
Lunaception (Wiki) -
a practice that purports to enable a woman to know ahead of time when she will be fertile each month, based on practices found in many non-urban cultures
Lysenkoism (Wiki) -
used colloquially to describe the manipulation or distortion of the scientific process as a way to reach a predetermined conclusion as dictated by an ideological bias, often related to social or political objectives.
Magnet therapy (Wiki) -
an alternative medicine practice involving the use of static magnetic fields.
Magnet Therapy: A Skeptical View 
Magnetic treatment - water (Wiki), gasoline, etc-
a proposed method of reducing the effects of hard water, as an alternative to water softening, or improving gas mileage, etc.
Maharishi Vedic (Wiki) -
an alternative medicine whose purpose is to provide a complementary system to modern, western medicine, and that aims to restore balance in the physiology, eliminate toxins and impurities, and awaken the body's natural healing mechanisms
Manatee of Helena (Wiki) -
a cryptid believed to have once inhabited the coast of St. Helena
Marcello Truzzi (Wiki) -
credited with originating the oft-used phrase "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof."
Mayanism (Wiki) -
non-codified eclectic collection of New Age beliefs, influenced in part by Pre-Columbian Maya mythology - 21 Dec 2012
Melanin theory (Wiki) -
posits the inherent superiority of black people and the essential inhumanity and inferiority of white people
Mental Telepathy (Wiki)
"... is the induction of mental states from one mind to another . . .has never been demonstrated to a greater degree than pure chance under controlled experimental conditions."
Meridians (Chinese medicine) (Wiki) -
According to these practices, there are channels along which the energy or qi of the psychophysical system is considered to flow.
Miasma theory (Wiki) - rotting organic matter emitted "bad air" that caused sickness.  Also see COVID-19\Water Filter.
Mind over Medicine: Scientific Proof That You Can Heal Yourself by Lissa Rankin, M.D.
        No Wiki page -
        Is there scientific proof we can heal ourselves? Lissa Rankin, MD at TEDxAmericanRiveria2012 - She is basing this on the Placebo Effect (Wiki).
        She also cites Institute of Noetic Sciences (see above) as a scientific proof.
        Names that appear on the book, none of which seem to have scientific credentials:
Kris Carr author of Crazy Sexy Kitchen
Christiane Northrup M.D. author of Women's Bodies...No Wiki Listing -From her web page:  Diplomate, American Board of Holistic Medicine, 2005
Martha Beck Ph.D. author of Finding Your Way...Wiki -
SARK founder of planetSARK.com -Wiki
Bernie Siegel, M.D. author of Love, Medicine & Miracles -Wiki - "Siegel's theories concerning the purported benefits of psychosocial support therapy remain unproven."
Brené Brown, Ph.D. author of Daring Greatly:...  Wiki
Chris Guillebeau author of the $100 Startup Wiki
Regena Thomashauer author of Mama Gena's School of Womanly Arts Wiki
Larry Dossey, M.D. author of Reinventing Medicine, Healing Words, and One Mind - See Prayer below for info on Dossey
Anita Moorjani author of Dying to be Me - appears on the Wiki page for Near Death Experience
Johathan Fields author of Uncertainty, founder of the Good Life Project - no Wiki,
Danielle LaPorte author of The Fire Starter Sessions - holistic is the first word on her about me page.
Nicole Daedone founder of One Taste (Wiki)
Mirzakarim Norbekov (Wiki) -
belief that patients should take an active role in curing their illnesses
Morphogenesis (Wiki: Morphogenesis, Morphogenesis Field)
        An explanation for what controls the form of growth that was mistaken.  We now know DNA (Wiki) does this.
Motionless electromagnetic generator (MEG) (Wiki) aka Scalar Waves -
"...a proposed device which is most notable for claims of over-unity operation, a feat which would violate the first law of thermodynamics. Allegedly, the device can eventually sustain its operation in addition to powering a load without application of external electrical power, by extraction of vacuum energy from the immediate environment." 
Patent 6362718 Motionless electromagnetic generator, Thomas E. Bearden, Stephen L. Patrick, James C. Hayes, James L. Kenny, and Kenneth D. Moore
Multi Level Marketing ((Wiki) -
compensating promoters of company products not only for sales they personally generate, but also for the sales of other promoters they introduce to the company, creating a downline of distributors and a hierarchy of multiple levels of compensation in the form of a pyramid.
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (Wiki, Skeptic magazine)
            "MCS is not recognized as an organic, chemical-caused illness by the World Health Organization, American Medical Association, or any of several other professional medical organizations."
Multiple Wave Oscillator - see Royal Rife
 MonaVie (Wiki) -
I've seen a lot of pickup trucks with signs on them for this expensive fruit juice and just based on that guessed it's a MLM (Wiki).
Mucoid plaque (Wiki) -
a term used by some alternative medicine advocates to describe a combination of allegedly harmful mucus-like material and food residue that they say coats the gastrointestinal tract of most people
Nambudripad Allergy Elimination Technique (Wiki) -
NAET draws on ideas from acupuncture, applied kinesiology, and allergy medicine.
Naturopathy (Wiki)
focuses on natural remedies and the body's vital ability to heal and maintain itself.
It turns out that some states (Wiki), like California, have state licensed Naturopaths (Wiki, Official web page).
Part of this is their ability to prescribe lab tests, medicine and do minor surgery all without doing a residency!
Near Death Experience (Wiki)
        I believe in all cases there was brain activity, otherwise how could anything be reported.  Clinical death depends on the heart stopping, not the brain.
Neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis (NICO) (Wiki) -
the practice of recommending the extraction of endodontically treated teeth for the prevention of NICO, or any other disease, is unethical and should be reported immediately to the appropriate state board of dentistry.
New Age spirituality  (Wiki) -
includes aspects of Occultism, astrology, esotericism, metaphysics, alternative medicine, music, collectivism, sustainability, and nature.
Newman, Joseph (Wiki) -
        He has a web page selling all matter of "information" on how to build a perpetual motion machine or free energy machine.

I phoned Mr. Newman on 18 Sep 2013 and asked if he would post a YouTube showing measurements of the efficiency.
He said I was stupid and twice said don't waste my time.

To me this says he knows what he's doing is false, i.e. he is not deluded.

Comment by Brooke on Newman's Youtube page:
Joseph Newman's Perpetual Motion Proved

Current for Series Batteries
Yes, the current in a series connected battery is the same for all cells, that is only half of story.   That's to say what's important is how much power is delivered to the motor and that's the product of the current and voltage under load (i.e. it's not correct to measure voltage when the load is not present.  Talking about how much current a motor uses has no meaning when efficiency (over unity or perpetual motion) is the topic under discussion.

Small Motor Water Pump
Efficiency means work out in relation to the input.  In this case it means how much water you can pump (where the head height or pressure is taken into account) and how many amp hours of power are input.  Not at all what is shown.

Battery State of Charge
The open circuit voltage of a lead acid battery has only a minor relationship with it's state of charge.  A much better SOC test would be to place a resistive load on the battery then measure it's voltage under load.  Google for TS-183B/U Battery Tester.

Motor Weight & Power Consumption
There's no reason to suppose that the weight of a motor determines how much current it draws.  That's only valid for a family of motors all designed the same.  The Newman motor is a high voltage low current design.  I predict that the motor is very inefficient if you look at mechanical power out vs. electrical power input.  But that's not what NBS tested, rather they looked at electrical power output vs. electrical power input.

Patent Refused because it failed test.
When NBS tested the motor in June 1986, Google NBSIR 86-3405 Report of Tests on Joseph Newman's Device, it showed an efficiency between 27% and 77%, nowhere near over 100%.

Efficiency (Over Unity) not measured
In none of the videos I've seen on YouTube has the efficiency been measured.  This is also true of all the Bedini motor YouTube videos.  I mention this because in both cases the "motor" efficiency is never measured (at least I haven't seen it done, if  you can provide a link please let me know).

Have Fun,

Brooke Clarke (easy to find using Google)

Nucleonic energy (Wiki) -
is energy obtained from the angular momentum of the nucleons (protons and neutrons) within an atomic nucleus. Whereas gravity dictates that the spin axes of nucleons are oriented towards the center of Earth, nucleonic energy allows for the axes to be reversed, or directed in any desired direction, in order to produce all forms of motion. This allows the Magnus effect to take effect on the nucleon, and presumedly cause levitation.
Numerology (Wiki) -
any of many systems, traditions or beliefs in a mystical or esoteric relationship between numbers and physical objects or living things
Neurocalometer (see Chiropractic) -
A thermocouple temperature sensor which sold for more than the price of a house
Oberon (device) (Wiki) -
Claims to diagnose organs by using headphones and electrodes
Occultism (Wiki)
can involve such subjects as magic (alternatively spelled and defined as magick), alchemy, extra-sensory perception, astrology, spiritualism, lithomancy, and numerology
Orgone energy (Wiki) -
a massless, omnipresent substance, similar to luminiferous aether, but more closely associated with vital, living energy than inert matter
Orthomolecular medicine (Wiki) -
a form of complementary and alternative medicine that seeks to prevent or treat diseases, with a goal of attaining optimal health, using nutrients prescribed as dietary supplements or derived from diets
Oscillococcinum (Wiki) -
a homeopathic alternative medicine marketed to relieve influenza-like symptoms
Ouija Board (Wiki) -
a flat board marked with letters, numbers, and other symbols, supposedly used to communicate with any spirits
Ousiograph (Wiki) -
a fictitious device purported to detect messages that are sent directly to one's brain to "direct them" and possibly control their behavior for an undetermined purpose
Over Unity (Wiki) aka Perpetual motion -
a machine that produces more energy than it consumes, i.e. a free energy device
Paranormal (Wiki) -
a general term that designates experiences that lie outside "the range of normal experience or scientific explanation" or that indicates phenomena that are understood to be outside of science's current ability to explain or measure
Past Life  -
see: Reincarnation 
Patrick Flanagan (Wiki) -
has promoted piramid power, the Neurophone an electronic nervous system excitation device that transmits sound through the skin directly to the brain
Perpetual motion (Wiki - History of Perpetual Motion Machines) -
a machine that can run without external power input (at or over unity)
Phrenology (Wiki) -
a hypothesis stating that the personality traits of a person can be derived from the shape of the skull.
Physiognomy (Wiki) -
the assessment of a person's character or personality from their outer appearance, especially the face
Physioscan (Wiki) -
system makes use of electromagnetic radiation to provide a rapid analysis of the energy in the body's organs and tissues
Placebo (Wiki) -
            YouTube _ Steven Novella - Placebo medicine the point he's making is the there's no physical (clinical) improvement, it's just that the subject feels better.
            So, claiming your "cure" works as well as a placebo means your "cure" does not work at all.
Pyramid Power (Wiki) -
alleged supernatural or paranormal properties of the ancient Egyptian pyramids and objects of similar shape
Poltergeist (Wiki) -
denotes an ostensibly paranormal phenomenon attributed to the presence of an invisible entity that manifests itself by creating noise or moving objects
Polygraph (lie detector) (Wiki) -
an instrument that measures and records several physiological indices such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, breathing rhythms/ratios, and skin conductivity while the subject is asked and answers a series of questions, in the belief that deceptive answers will produce physiological responses that can be differentiated from those associated with non-deceptive answers.
Ponzi scheme (Wiki) -
a fraudulent investment operation that pays returns to separate investors from their own money or money paid by subsequent investors, rather than from any actual profit earned.  For example see Social Security System (Wiki) where the benefits are from subsequent employees.
(2016) It turns out that according to Modern Monetary Theory the government can just write the benefit checks without collecting any money.
Power therapies (Wiki) -
a term coined by professor Charles Figley, Florida State University Traumatology Institute, to group several novel treatments of post traumatic stress. Figley aimed to identify the "active ingredients" of these therapies — EMDR, TFT, EFT, VK/D, and TIR.
Prayer (Wiki) -
a form of religious practice that seeks to activate a volitional connection to some greater power in the universe through deliberate practice
As evidence for the efficacy of prayer (Wiki) I was referred to the book: "Healing Words The Power of Prayer and the Practice of Medicine by Larry Dossey.
Some comments on this book and Larry:
The Science of Prayer - review by Committee for Skeptical Inquiry
The Mythology of Larry Dossey -
Dossey is associated with Whole Person Healing who are trying to come up with data to show that Homeopathy works, both of which have been banned by the FDA (P-S, B-T)
Dossey is associated with Alternative Health which was promoting Photonic-Stimulation and is now promoting Breast Thermography,
Dossey's web page -

Here are a number of scientific studies of how well prayer words and all of the them say it does not work.
Lancet - "Music, imagery, touch (MIT) and prayer as adjuncts to international cardiac care: the Monitoring and Actualization of Noetic Trainings (MANTRA) II randomized study" - "Neither masked prayer nor MIT therapy significantly improved clinical outcome after elective characterization or per-cutaneous coronary intervention."
Mayo Clinic Proceedings - Intercessory prayer and cardiovascular disease progression in a coronary care unit population: a randomized controlled trial.
"As delivered in this study, intercessory prayer had no significant effect on medical outcomes after hospitalization in a coronary care unit."
Use of Complementary and Alternative Medical Therapies by Patients Referred to a Fibromyalgia Treatment Program at a Tertiary Care Center
Archives of Internal Medicine -
The Effects of Prayer: Scientific Study, 2002; 162: 1420
American Heart Journal - Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer (STEP) in cardiac bypass patients: A multicenter randomized trial of uncertainty and certainty of receiving intercessory prayer, April 2006 (Vol. 151, Issue 4, Pages 934-942) -
Intercessory prayer for the alleviation of ill health. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD000368. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000368.pub3.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:  These findings are equivocal and, although some of the results of individual studies suggest a positive effect of intercessory prayer,the majority do not and the evidence does not support a recommendation either in favor or against the use of intercessory prayer. We are not convinced that further trials of this intervention should be undertaken and would prefer to see any resources available for such a trial used to investigate other questions in health care.
Precognition (Wiki)
          is a type of extrasensory perception that would involve the acquisition or effect of future information that cannot be deduced from presently available and normally acquired sense-based
           information or laws of physics and/or nature.
Primal therapy (Wiki) -
a trauma-based psychotherapy created by Arthur Janov, who argues that neurosis is caused by the repressed pain of childhood trauma
Pseudoscience (Wiki) -
a methodology, belief, or practice that is claimed to be scientific, or that is made to appear to be scientific, but which does not adhere to an appropriate scientific methodology, lacks supporting evidence or plausibility, or otherwise lacks scientific status
PSYCH-K (Wiki) -
stands for Psychological Kinesiology. It is a self-help tool developed by Robert M. Williams in 1988 with the goal of changing beliefs in the subconscious mind
Psychic surgery (Wiki) -
a procedure typically involving the supposed creation of an incision using only the bare hands, the supposed removal of pathological matter, and the seemingly spontaneous healing of the incision.
Psychoanalysis (Wiki) -
a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and continued by others. It is primarily devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior, although it can also be applied to societies.
Karl Popper (Wiki) points out that it has no predictive value, but can claim after something happened why it happened.
Psychokinesis (PK) (Wiki)
"...refers to the direct influence of mind on a physical system that cannot be entirely accounted for by the mediation of any known physical energy.  Most scientists believe that the existence of psychokinesis has not been convincingly demonstrated"
psyco (psico?) medical diagnosis (Wiki) -
a machine that uses the resonant frequencies of the organs to diagnose whatever ails you
Qi (Ch'i) (Wiki) -
an active principle forming part of any living thing
Qigong (Wiki)

      The main arguments from the view of skeptics against the correlation between qigong practices and health-related results are:

      Be Wary of Acupuncture, Qigong, and "Chinese Medicine"
Quantum mysticism (Wiki) -
a set of metaphysical ideas and associated practices that supposes a consciousness, intelligence, or otherwise mystical component to the experience of existence or reality at the quantum scale
Psychokinesis (PK, TK) (Wiki) -
a term coined by publisher Henry Holt to refer to the direct influence of mind on a physical system that cannot be entirely accounted for by the mediation of any known physical energy
Radionics  (Wiki) -
the use of blood, hair, a signature, or other substances unique to the person as a focus to supposedly heal a patient from afar
Reincarnation  (Wiki) -
believed to occur when the soul or spirit, after the death of the body, comes back to Earth in a newborn body
Religion is the major cause of war and suffering in the world, see: Annotated Atheist Reading List
Sam Richards: A radical experiment in empathy - note that religion is a very important aspect, like it takes heat AND fuel AND oxygen to make a fire it takes religion AND something to make war.  That's to say that without religion there would be no war.
Dr. Robert Sapolsky's lecture about Biological Underpinnings of Religiosity (1:22:46) - also see detoxification above
Reiki (Wiki)
      Reiki Is Nonsense 
Remote Viewing (RV) (Wiki)
"... is the practice of seeking impressions about a distant or unseen target using paranormal means . . . constitutes pseudoscience"  movie: Suspect Zero
Rex Gilroy (Wiki) -
His work has focused on yowie reports, 'out of place' animals, UFOs, and propositions regarding a 'lost' Australian civilization
Royal Rife Frequency Healing (Wiki) - aka Resonant therapy
known for his belief that he could observe and render inert a number of viruses which he thought were causal factors in several diseases, most notably cancer
Ruggero Santilli (Wiki) -
a large amount of his work has dealt with his so-called hadronic mechanics, a novel fundamental theory of the universe which is not generally accepted by the physics community
Séances (Wiki) -
an attempt to communicate with spirits
Scalar field theories (Wiki) -
although this is a valid field theory, the term is often used in conjunction with over unity and other quack machines
Shamanism (Wiki) -
a range of beliefs and practices regarding communication with the spiritual world
Scientology (Wiki) -
Religion based on science fiction
Solfeggio Frequencies (no Wiki)
Based on "Healing Codes for the Biological Apocalypse" & makes use of "Pythagorean skein numbers" (i.e. nonsense)
UT – 396 Hz – Liberating Guilt and Fear
RE – 417 Hz – Undoing Situations and Facilitating Change
MI – 528 Hz – Transformation and Miracles (DNA Repair)
FA – 639 Hz – Connecting/Relationships
SOL – 741 Hz – Awakening Intuition
LA – 852 Hz – Returning to Spiritual Order
Spirits (Wiki) -
similar to the soul taken to be the seat of the mental, intellectual and emotional powers
Stargate Device (Wiki)
is a portal device within the Stargate fictional universe that allows practical, rapid travel between two distant locations. The devices first appear in the 1994 Roland Emmerich film Stargate, and thereafter in the television series Stargate SG-1 and its spin-offs.  Works by means of an unstable vortex energy field.
Subluxation aka Vertebral subluxation (Wiki) -
a term that is commonly used by chiropractors to describe signs and symptoms of the spinal column.
Tarot (Wiki)
Tarot Cards (Wiki)
Occult and fortune telling are just a couple of the applications of the cards.
Telekinesis (TK)
See: Psychokinesis
Templeton Foundation (Wiki)
        ...recipients of large grants from the Templeton Foundation sometimes write what the Foundation wants rather than what they believe.
Therapeutic touch (Wiki) -
Practitioners of therapeutic touch claim that by placing their hands on, or near, a patient, they are able to detect and manipulate the patient's putative energy field.  also see Laying on of hands
Third Eye (Wiki) -
a spiritual concept associated with the ajna chakra
Thrive the movie (IMDB)
plain old fashioned pseudo science.
"It really doesn't take any more than a passing familiarity with High School level physics to understand that the theories being peddled here are insane"
Timewave zero (Wiki) -
a numerological formula that purports to calculate the ebb and flow of "novelty", defined as increase in the universe's interconnectedness, or organised complexity,[57] over time
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) (Wiki) -
practices include such treatments as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, dietary therapy, and both Tui na and Shiatsu massage
What Is Traditional Chinese Medicine? -
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) (Wiki) -
. . . is the use of electric current produced by a device to stimulate the nerves for therapeutic purposes.  (also see EMS)
Transhumanism (Wiki) -
often used as a synonym for "human enhancement".
Ufology (Wiki) -
does not represent an academic field of research and is widely described as a pseudoscience
Urine therapy (Wiki) -
In alternative medicine, the term urine therapy (also urotherapy, urinotherapy or uropathy) refers to various applications of human urine for medicinal or cosmetic purposes, including drinking of one's own urine and massaging one's skin with one's own urine
Violet wand Violet Ray (Wiki) See Below
A violet ray is a supposed medical device claimed to be useful in electrotherapy
Vitalism (Wiki) -
a doctrine that the functions of a living organism are due to a vital principle distinct from biochemical reactions (similar to Qi)
A History of Life’s Vital Essence (Part 1): Fire and Gods
A History of Life’s Vital Essence (Part 2): Vital Thinking
A History of Life’s Vital Essence (Part 3): The Twilight of Vitalism
Vortex Energy - see Stargate Device, one of the pseudo science words used in areas like zero point energy
Water-fuelled cars (Wiki) -
an automobile that supposedly derives its energy directly from water
William C. Rader (Wiki) -
has refused independent examination and testing of his product by legitimate stem cell researchers
Zero-Point Energy (Wiki) (aka: Over Unity (Wiki), Perpetual motion (Wiki))  -
hypothetical machines that operate or produce useful work indefinitely and, more generally, hypothetical machines that produce more work or energy than they consume, whether they might operate indefinitely or not.

Hoax Ideas

Dihydrogen monoxide (Wiki) - DHMO.org - Facts - Environmental Impact - Friends of Hydrogen Hydroxide -
has many very dangerous properties including death.  Many petitions are out to outlaw this chemical.
Intelligent falling  (Wiki) -
a pseudo scientific supernatural explanation of the effects of gravity
Turboencabulator (Wiki) (my Truboencabulator page) -
a fictional machine

Patents by Manes E. Fuld (Voltamp Co.)

It appears that Manes E. Fuld came up with a number of novel inventions.  Don't know if he was the first to use a deep draw process in general, but probably in relation to making battery cans.

620027 Induction Coil, Manes E. Fuld, Feb 21,1899, 336/75 ; 336/196; 336/213; 336/219 - "medical coil" includes brass or copper tube used to regulate the secondary voltage.
677652 Portable Electric Battery, Manes E. Fuld, July 2, 1901, 607/65 ; 307/132R
D29977 Design for a Current-Regulator Case, , Manes E. Fuld, Jan 10, 1899, D13/125 ; D8/DIG.2 - for use with medical equipment.
612326 Electric Battery, , Manes E. Fuld, Oct 11, 1898, 429/99 - packaging No. 6 batteries
627917 Dry Cell, Manes E. Fuld, Jun 27 1899, 429/134; 429/65; 429/171 - terninals labeled Z and ?C? (not + and -)

Small Electric Motors (Sold to a guy named Lionel)
837213 Electric Motor, Manes E. Fuld, Nov 27, 1906, 310/244 ; 310/46 - very similar in feel to the Toy Motor Kit.
840451 Commutator, Manes E. Fuld, Jan 1, 1907, 310/235 ; 29/597

612326 Electric Battery, M.E. Fuld, Oct 11, 1898, 429/99 - holding a number of dry cells for easy replacement
627917 Dry Cell, Manes E. Fuld, June 27, 1899, 429/134 ; 429/171; 429/65 - an alternate way of making a No. 6 dry cell
706340 Battery, WILLIAM L. PANIKOFF, Aug 5, 1902, 429/68 ; 429/113; 429/150
1439956 Battery Cell, Manes E. Fuld, Dec 26, 1922, 429/171 - Method of forming the Zinc for a No. 6 dry cell using a deep draw process.  Prior methods were using sheet metal and soldering the seam or a thin wall casting which at that time was not reliable.
627408 Packing Case for Electric Cells, Manes E. Fuld, Jun 20, 1899, 429/96 ; 324/158.1 - easy to replace each cell
960222 Electric Battery Cell, Manes E. Fuld, - replaces No. 6 dry cell screw thread and thumbnuts with bolts to allow use for mounting to board

852265 Headlight, Manes E. Fuld, April 39, 1907, 362/308 -  for use by doctors. Light with lens at center of forehead and light not in doctor's eyes.
479266 Game Apparatus, Filed: 1892, Pub: July 19, 1892, William Fuld (a different guy)  - Ouija Board (Wiki)

General Patents

Class Numbers

5 Beds

Induction (Ruhmkorff) Coils

Wiki: Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff 

23272 Improved electro-magnetic medical apparatus, Heinrich Soltmann, Mar 15, 1859, 607/65 ; 338/83; 361/268
76654 Induction Coil Apparatus and Circuit Breakers, Charles Grafton Page (Wiki, Hall of Fame), Apr 14, 1868 - sold to Western Union for $25,000 in
52054  The induction-coil, instead of being made movable upon the magnet
72616  This compound coil is made like any ordinary induction-coil
74905  The inner end of the induction-coil are surrounded by the prime coil
76654  Improvement in Induction Coil Apparatus and Circuit Breakers, Charles Grafton Page, Oct 10, 1871, 361/268 ; 335/91; 336/150; 336/234; 336/65
    The induction-coil consists of a metallic conductor, copper is generally preferred
    RE4588 Improvement in Induction Coil Apparatus and Circuit Breakers, Priscilla Webster Page (WU Telegraph Co),
78495  Energizing the primary wire of the induction-coil, the iron core becomes magnetized
90626  Making use of an induction-coil
175111 MAGNETIC MACHINES 607/115
263700 Electro-Medical Induction Coil
297924 Apparatus for the Production and Utilization of Secondary Electric Currents
320547 Medical Battery, Otto Fleming, Jun 23, 1885, 429/68 ; 429/150; 429/97; 607/65; 607/66
326270 Induction Coil
330531 Medical Induction Coil
332559 Induction Coil
342553 Induction Coil
352084 Induction Coil
350130 Induction Coil
352105 Induction Coil
363304 Pocket Battery 213/101
372168 Coin Operated Induction Coil
372441 Coin Operated Induction Coil
373088 Therapeutic Battery 54/51
374495 Coin Operated Induction Coil
385927 Coin Operated Induction Coil
395932 Medical Battery 43/18.1R
399591 Coin Operated Induction Coil
414266 Induction Coil
414626 Induction Coil
415345 Electro-Medical Battery 152/33 ; 152/1; 152/96; 301/104; 301/105.1; 301/108.5; 301/67; 301/95.107
416762 Induction Coil
419731 Portable Faradic Battery 429/164
429447 Medical Battery 192/73
432050 Induction Coil or Transformer
446730 Induction Coil
456746 Medical Induction Coil
463945 Therapeutic Electric Battery 5/617
464677 Electrical Transformer
524636 Induction Coil
535917 Induction Coil
RE10949 Coin Operated Induction Coil
548126 Electrical illumination
575772 Roengton Ray Tube
586622 Induction Coil
605174 Induction Coil
617067 Helix for Electrical Device
620027 Induction Coil
647687 Electrotherapeudic Device 607/1 ; 422/186.15
669968 Induction-coil, Leonidas G Woolley, 1901-03-12, 607/65 361/232 200/85R 361/268 - Electrotherapeutic Apparatus
684326 Induction Coil for Medical Apparatus
733343  UV Rays
733948 Magneto Electric Machine
734197  a split-coil improvement (1903)
751411 System of Lighting by Gas or Vapor Electric Lamps
763510 Magneto Electric Generator
796851  RE12805 Ruhmkorff Coil  335/197  reissue changed to 361/268 ; 200/250
802373 Magneto Dynamo Electric Machine
861783 Interrupter for Electric Circuits
889542 Electromedical Battery, E.T. Otto (Otto Mfg Co), Jun 2, 1908, 607/144; 312/290; 429/163
956168 System of Lighting by Gas or Vapor Electric Lamps
959166 Magneto Electric Generator
1003634 Induction Coil
1029388 Electromagnetic Apparatus, J. McIntyre, Jun 11 1912, 335/235; 335/266
1092417  Induction coil comprising a soft iron core (Mar 5, 1913)  
1307093 Electric Inductance Apparatus
1125913 Electric Machine, John B. Roche, Jan 19 1915 -
Patent 1125913
                  Electric Machine
Patent 1125913
                  Electric Machine

1305725 Electric Massage Machine, C.W. Kent, Jun 3, 1919, 601/20; 336/117 - looks like flashlight with roller, one "D" cell.
1547180 Electric Lamp
1723261 Coil and Method of Winding Same
1482891 Faradic medical apparatus, Ghegan John Joseph, Feb 5, 1924, 361/268, 336/90, 607/65


There are at least three variations of these hand crank horeshoe magnet machines: the Davis & Kidder, The Burnap & Bradshaw and the Marshall.
11415 Magnetoelectric Machine, Ari Davis, Aug 1 1854, 310/71 -
23214 Magneto-electric Machine, Burnap & Bradshaw, Mar 8 1859, 310/75A - contains a wind up spring and speed regulator
25023 Electric Machine, Moses Marshall, Aug 9 1859, 310/70R - Includes provision for different waveforms +, -, +/-
Moses Marshall Electric Machine
25023 Electric
                  Machine, Moses Marshall, Aug 9 1859, 310/70R
25023 Electric
                  Machine, Moses Marshall, Aug 9 1859, 310/70R
Lever at left has two purposes:
1) control the strength of the horseshoe magnet hence the output
2) when fully pushed in acts as a keeper to preserve the magnet
                  Electric Machine, Moses Marshall, Aug 9 1859, 310/70R
Keeper shown fully to the left, i.em maximum output.

The small knob marked "A" is the subject of the patent.
It controls one of the three commutators and hence the
output voltage waveform type.
25023 Electric
                  Machine, Moses Marshall, Aug 9 1859, 310/70R

Other generators
321278 Exercising Machine, G.P. Clarke & G. Harsin, June 30, 1885, - the exercising motion generates electricity that's fed back to the hands of the person.
446661 Magneto-Electric Machine, George P. Clarke, Feb 17, 1891, - spring powered
155376 Magneto-Electric Machines, O. Heikel, Sep 29 1874, 310/75B ; 310/154.49; 310/191; 310/70R - horseshoe magnet with 4 pole armature
180082  Magneto-Electric Machines, Eward Weston, Jul 18, 1876, 310/46 - generator - electromagnetic filed coils & 6 poles
RE8141 Magneto-Electric Machines, Eward Weston, Mar 26 1878, 310/46 -
189997 Magneto-Electric Machines,C.F. Brush, Apr 24 1877, 310/40R 310/268 310/46 -wire wound in grooves in iron

Also see Spark Museum: Magneto-Electric Therapy Machines & Other "Quack" Medical Devices -

Violet Ray

647687 Electrotherapeutic (chair)
684326 Vacuum Electrode for Therapeutic Purposes, R.H. Wapper, Oct 8 1901 -
763183 Ultra-violet-ray Electrode, 313/307 ; 313/112; 313/245
771700 Vacuum Tube, H. Boehm & F.H. Wappler (Wappler & American X-Light Mfg Co) Oct 4 9004 -
789040 Electrotherapeutic Apparatus - Whilmhurst machine powers the glass violet devices
796114 Electrotherapeutic Apparatus, 601/11 ; 15/246.3; 15/257.1; 601/16; 607/90; 607/94
1303273 Electrotherapeutic Device - similar to a dental X-ray cachine
1317278 Electrotherapeutic Apparatus, - similar to the classis design, but two side by side cylinders
1338812 Electrotherapeutic Apparatus, W.L. Carlson & E.C. Hanson, May 4 1920 -
1345537 Electrotherapeutic Apparatus - HV supply in wooden box
1390429 Electride, J Stanley,
1435055 Electrotherapeutic Apparatus - case with different electrodes, but not single cylinder hand held HV supply

1506344 Violet
                  Ray Generator, B.F. Jancke (Eastern Laboratories,
                  Inc), Aug 26 1924

1537012 Coil support for High Voltage Devices, B.F. Jancke (no assigned), May 5, 1925, 607/150; 242/125.2; 336/66; 336/90; 336/107; 336/192
1506344 Violet Ray Generator, B.F. Jancke (Eastern Laboratories, Inc), Aug 26 1924
As received the line cord has disintegrated and needs to be replaced. The outside of the glass has a coating that's turned brown and needs cleaning.  The metal part is a direct electrode, not an extension.
Marvel Violet
                  Ray H.F. Generator by Eastern Labs as received
After cutting line cord and pulling the sleeve off.
Marvel Violet
                  Ray H.F. Generator by Eastern Labs Inside
The resistance across the line input (buzzer adj screwed down to close contacts)
77 Ohms.

Reisistance from common line input to HV output is 82 Ohms.

My guess is that the primary (10 Turns you can see) is heave wire and that the secondary is very fine wire ( 36 AWG was common then).  414.8 Ohms per 1,000 feet or about 200 feet.

The secondary coil rund the full length between the wood disk on the right and up an dunder the wood on the left on a 1" former.  If a single layer that would be 755 turns.  Bare 36 AWG is 0.005" diameter so 755 turns would be about 4 inches.

Violet Ray
                  Generator showing Secondary Winding under Primary
It's 3-3/4" between the two wood disks and the secondary wire may be larger than 36 AWG.

1524876 Holder for Terminals of Violet Ray Apparatus, T. Mueller, et al (Master Electric Co), Feb 3 1925 - the classic single cylinder hand held HV supply
1624951 High-Tension Circuits, H.B. Holthouse,
1728080 Electrotherapeutic Apparauts - brush electrode
1845376 Generator of Ultra Violet Rays, H.W. Weld Feb 16 1932 - looks like regular filament light bulb w/special glass formula
2000204 Vibratory Current Interrupter (for violet ray apparatus), W.A. Whipple - cord end of cylinder
2286110 Diathermy Apparatus (includes violet rays),
2323529 Apparatus for Violet Ray Treatment, C.G. Filzer,Aug 24 1943
2327346 Therapeutic Lamp, Frank Furedy (Sun Kraft Inc),
2348617 Ultraviolet Ray Generator, Frank Furedy (Sun Kraft Inc), May 9 1944 - parabolic trough reflector
2383421 Ultraviolet Ray Applicator, M.I. Schultz, Aug 21 1945 -
2397757 Hairbrush, H. Schwedersky, Apr 2 1946 - w/UV light
2439787 Ultraviolet Ray Generator, C.E. Atkins (Sun Kraft Inc), Apr 20 1948
2460707 Electrotherapeutic Apparauts, Thomas H. Moray, Feb 1 1949 -
2590601 Apparatus for Violet Ray Treatment, C.G. Filzer, Mar 25 1952,
2666436 Ultraviolet Ray Applicator, A.F. Pesce, Jan 19 1954

Chloride of Silver Dry Cell Battery Company

Dec  3 1887 (2)
May  7 1889
May 14 1889
Jun 11 1889 ? 405196 Galvanic Battery, Jhon A. Barrett, 429/94; 429/119 -
Jly 30 1889
Nov  5 1889 (2)
Feb 18 1890 421801 Electric Battery, Charles Williams & Gustav A. Leibig, 429/175; 429/185 - batter seal
Sep 30 1890 437469 Galvanic Battery, Gustav A. Leibig & Charles Williams, 429/164 - high current chloride-of-Silver cell
Apr 21 1891 450840 Galvanic Battery, Charles Williams, 429/160; 429/168 -
Jan 19 1892 467338 Rheostat, 338/140; 338/190 -
May 24 1892 475528 Rheostat, 428/457; 106/287.26; 106/287.35; 252/503; 427/103; 427/205 -
May 24 1892 475529 Rheostat, 338/126; 338/140; 338/157; 338/202; 338/308 -
Jly 26 1892 479541 Sealed Battery-Cell or Similar Articles, 429/174 - sealed glass test tube
Dec 20 1892 488299 Induction Apparatus, 361/268; 307/17; 307/106; 307/132.00R; 335/266; 607/65 - Faradic type machine with three coils 120 degrees apart
Jun 18 1895 541136 Rheostat or other Circuit-Controller, 338/140; 338/170; 338/190; 338/202 -
Feb 18 1896 554759 Electric Battery, Charles Williams, 429/99; 429/123 - battery of replaceable cells
Feb 18 1896 554760 Electric Battery, Charles Williams, 429/100 -
Feb 18 1896 554761 Electric Battery and Method of Sealing Battery-Cells, 429/99; 429/174 -
Dec 1 1896 572285 Battery-Cell, 429/185; 429/184 - perfect seal
Oct 11 1898
Jan 10 1899
Feb 21 1899
Jun 27 1899
Jly  2 1901


1272469 Electrotherapeutic instrument, Tiodolf Lidberg, 1918-07-16, - internal body probe - heater & thermostat
1279111 Dilator, John G Homan, Electrothermal Co., Sep 17, 1918, 606/197; 219/227; 219/238; 219/523; 607/113 - heater inserted into body cavity cures everything. see 2777445 below.

HG Fischer and Co
1634627 Spark gap, Howard H Osborn, HG Fischer and Co, 1927-07-05, - part of electro-therapeutic equipment
2071561 High frequency apparatus, Peter P Musket, Donald E Richardson, HG Fischer and Co, 1937-02-23, - Diathermy machine

Intra-Therm, Des Moines, Iowa
1888408 High frequency oscillatory circuit for therapeutic purposes, Paul C Rawls, Technical Equipment Co, 1932-11-22, - twin triodes in push-pull
1945867 High frequency oscillatory apparatus for electrotherapeutic and sterilization purposes, Paul C Rawls, echnical Equipment Co, 1934-02-06, -

College of Electronic Medicine, San Francisco - also made the Short Wave Oscillocast Diathermy machine.
2438605 Electrical therapeutic device, Fred J Hart, College of Electronic Medicine, SF, 1948-03-30, - AC magnetic field, bullet shaped, with motor
2503668 Electrical therapeutic device, Fred J Hart, 1950-04-11, - HF, low power, with motor
2522269 Electrical therapeutic device, Fred J Hart, 1950-09-12, - AC magnetic field, no motor
2545087 Electrical therapeutic device, Fred J Hart, Electronic Medical Foundation, 1951-03-13 - adjustable HF (Diathermy Wiki) low power, with motor
2667866 Electropad, Fred J Hart, Electronic Medical Foundation, 1954-02-02, - electric heating pad
2777445 Electrical therapeutical device for internal application, Fred J Hart, Electronic Medical Foundation, SF, 957-01-15 - probe with heater and thermal switch.

Dr Jerome Kidders Celebrated Electro-Magnetic Machine

This was on eBay with a number of patent dates visible.
Dr. Jerome Kidder inventor

Dates Patent
Sep 18, 1860 30068 Electro-magnetic apparatus, J. Kidder, - relates to how the inner coil with big wire is connected to the outer fine wire coil.
Mar 15, 1864 41927 Magneto-Electric Machine, J. Kidder - complex switching & core that can be pulled in or out.
Jan 16, 1866 52054 Induction Coil, J. Kidder, - fine wire wound at the center of cylinderical electromagnet, uses hollow metal tube to control output.
Sep 18, 1866 58105 Electro-magnetic apparatus, J. Kidder, - two side by side coils
Aug 10, 1869 93625 Electromagnetic Machine, J. Kidder, 361/268; 336/107; 335/270; 336/182 - looks like the eBay item. more energy efficient for longer battery life (an eBay ad shows a 115 VAC line cord?)
Jan 4, 1876 RE6840 Electromagnetic Machine, J. Kidder 361/268 336/67 335/252 336/225 - based on 93625
J. Kidder also has many related patents.
175111 Magnetic Machine, J. Kidder, March 31, 1876 - coil is hinged and the hinge acts as on/off switch.
182203 Electrical Apparatus, J. Kidder, Sept 12, 1876 - a series of batteries to connect directly to human body
258857 Galvanic Battery, J. Kidder (Dec.d), May 30, 1882 - similar to 182203
269794 Electro Medical Coil, J. Kidder (Dec.d), Dec 26, 1882 -

Interesting Faradic Instrument

The seller responded to my email with a link to:
Which shows the same machine.

7 Oct 2007 - eBay.UK has a "THE TONISATOR - CLOCKWORK ELECTRIC SHOCK QUACK MACHINE" offered by lectrolove.
which is a currently made Faradic Quack medical instrument.  Things observed from the photos:


Wiki: List of topics characterized as pseudoscience -

Beall’s List of open-access publishers - If you read an article that cites an article in any of these publications, don't give that article any weight  There's no peer review, solicit authors who are not qualified, and/or charge big publication fees.  See:
Scam Science Journals and “The Simpsons”
Science: Who's Afraid of Peer Review? by John Bohannon - Table where the good publications rejected the fake sting article, accepted or review indicates a problem

Logical Fallacies

The Skeptic's Dictionary


YouTube: Bill Nye the Science Guy

Spark Museum - Induction Coils - Quack Medical Apparatus - Magneto-Electric Therapy Machines & Other "Quack" Medical Devices

Bob Grove's - Dr. Bob's Medical Quackery -
Quack Watch -

The quackometer -

Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Scientific Studies - May 8, 2016 - a good overview of scientific reports in the media

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page created Sep 12 2007