Digital Photography 101

© Brooke Clarke 2011 - 2012

Background
Art
    Portraits
    Product Photography
    In the Field
        Motorcycle Show
        Driving
        Lighting Workshop
        Magic Finger Frost
        Beetle on Driveway
        Ukiah Garden Club 5 May 2012
        Solar Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah
        Locust Tree on my street
        5 June 2012 Venus Transits the Sun Ukiah
        Horse
        17 June 2012 Car Show Santa Rosa
        Century Plant
    Prints
    Astronomy
The Lens
    Chip Size
    Focal Length
    Speed
    Bokeh
    Resolution
    Macro (Close Up)
        Microscope Objective or C-mount Lens
    Telephoto
    Accessories
Focus
        Viewfinder
        Dominant Eye
        Self Timer
        Hyperfocal Distance
        Focusing Modes
            Manual Mode
            Single Mode
            Continuous Mode
        Speed of focusing
        Depth of Focus
        Focus Lock
        Mirror Up
        Tripod
       Close Up Photography
Exposure
    Stops
    ASA or ISO Film Speed
    Exposure Value
        Metering Modes
            Manual
            Spot
            Center Weighted
            Matrix
        Exposure Modes
            Consumer Cameras
                Auto
            Professional Cameras
                Manual (M)
                Shutter (S)
                Aperture (A)
                Programmed (P)
         Exposure Compensation
         High Dynamic Range
            Lab #02 Measure the Dynamic Range
        Dark Frame Subtraction
    Lab #1 f/16 Sunny Day Rule
Image Sensor
    Physical Size
    Number of Pixels
    Size of Pixels
Release Mode
Color Balance
Flash On Camera
    Red Eye
    Distance
    Fill Flash
    Watt Seconds
    Guide Number
Digital Files
    Types
        RAW
    Getting Image Out of Camera
Possible Future Topics
Related
    Web Pages
    Costco Photo Processing
    Nielsen & Bainbridge Frames
    Ukiah Area Photo Related
Lytro
Links

Background

In some ways digital cameras are very similar to film cameras and in other ways they are very different.  The idea here is to look at the basic things required to get a good image.

Art

The difference between a snap shot and an artistic photograph has to do with all aspects of the image.  With film cameras there was a technical challence in getting a good exposure and with the focus on the desired subject and not focus on the undesired background.  With the advent of modern digital cameras the technical part can be overcome by knowing how to use the camera, but the artistic part is up to the photographer.

2X4

I choose the photography classes at De Anza Jr. college that were part of the Communications branch rather than the classes at San Jost State that were part of the science branch.  The instructor (H.W. "Wick" Wichers) taught philosophy along with photography which I liked.  He told the story:

For years farmer Joe was jealous of his neighbor Don.  You see Don had a mule that was worth his weight in gold because Don could get the mule to do all kinds of hard work. Joe tried to buy the mule for years but Don wouldn't sell.  But one day Don agreeded and the mule had a new home.  The next day Joe shows up at Don's place complaining about how the mule would not do anything, so they go back to Joe's field where the mule is hooked up to a plow.  Don picks up a 2x4 and hits the mule up the side of his head and tells the mule to pull and off goes the mule pulling the plow.  Don says to Joe, first you've got to get his attention.

So in photography you've got to put a 2x4 in the photo to get the attention of the viewer.  Without the 2x4 it's just a snap shot.

Framing

This has to do with panning the camera up-down-left-right zooming in-out and/or rotating the camera.  There are different ideas on how to do this.  For example most portraits in the U.S. are head shots where all of the head is in the frame.  In Eurpoe it's common that the shot it tighter cutting off part of the head.

Composition

Includes framing and also includes changing your point of view, i.e. moving to somewhere else.

A common mistake when taking a portrait is having something in the background that's distracting such as a telephone pole coming out of the subjects head.  Taking a few steps to the left or right will eliminate the problem.

Subject Background Seperation

Usually it's a good idea to seperate the subject from the background.  There are many ways of doing that.

Focus

By choosing the lens and f/stop it's possible to have the subject in focus and the background out of focus.  Typically you want the lens wide open (Exposure mode A) this gives the smallest depth of field.  Picking a lens with good bokeh is important for many subjects.

Lighting

The subject needs to be properly lit but the background can be made to be either overexposed (high key photography) or underexposed (low key photography).  One of the benefits of a photography studio is the ability to independently light the subject and background.  This can be accomplished in the field by using flash lighting for the subject or (more difficult) the background.

Composition

By simply moving the camera so that the background is either lighter or darker or further away (more out of focus) the subject background seperation can be controlled.

Ken Rockwell

Ken Rockwell starts off with the idea of FART before taking a photograph
F: You get a Feeling that this is something worthwile as a subject for a photograph
A: Ask yourself why this would make a good photograph
R: Refine the image to bring out the quality that's attracted you
T: Take the photo

Then goes into what makes a great photograph,
then Composition: Sex and Balance, You can never get too much.

Portraits

Ken Rockwell suggests that because of how the human visual system (Ken: How We See) works the camera should be about 15 feet from the subject.  This means that a "portrait lens" (Ken: Portrait Lens) will be have a longer focal length than was historically common.  For example for head shots a lens like the Nikon 300mm f/2.8 would be excellent.  This is an area where Boe

Product Photography

The key is to set your camera for the highest quality image (largest file size) AND use tif or any format other than jpg.  Then look for even lighting, not direct sun so that all of the subject is illuminated.  A room with North facing windows at midday or best of all inside a white tent.  Let me do the background erasing.  To make that easier set the subject up on something like a short 2x4 or other spacer so any shadows are not right next to the subject.

Background Erasing

It's possible to take product photos without a studio.  The key is in erasing the background.  In order for the erasing to work the product needs to be illuminated in such a way that there's not part of the product that is underexposed and that is adjacent to undexposed background since in that area you can not seperate the product from the background.

Background
                    Erasing 1. as photographed Background
                    Erasing 2. after correcting underexposure Background
                    Erasing 3. after erasing the background
As photographed.  Note a small f/stop is needed to
get depth of field and the existing monolights do not provide enough light so the image is underexposed.
After correcting the levels in Photoshop.
After erasing the background manually.

In the Field

Motorcycle Show

On 29 Aug 2011 there was a motorcycle show in the Applebee's parking lot here in Ukiah.  I went knowing that the photographic problem would be to separate the subject from the background.  It turned out that one of the motorcycles was one I had seen in the magazines in the early 1970s and one was at the show.  I ended up taking dozens of photographs of this one motorcycle.  It later occurred to me that I should have taken more photos of it and totally ignored all the other motorcycles at the show.  This example was in pristine condition and very photogenic.  There was no way to take a photograph showing all of the motorcycle without also getting a lot of clutter from the motorcycles that were to it's left and right.

Left
Harley
                    Davidson XR750
  
Harley
                    Davidson XR750
Harley Davidson
                    XR750

Harley Davidson
                    XR750
Harley Davidson
                    XR750



Thoughts after the show:
  • Studying a single subject (motorcycle) in great detail may result in better photographs than trying to cover the entire show.
  • Using Active-D Lighting (High Dynamic Range HDR) may have improved the images.
  • Using a tripod and Mirror Up might have improved the image sharpness.
  • Using stitching might have allowed a full image, but it's doubtful that they would be at the same perspective.
  • Asking the owner to move the motorcycle to separate it from the other nearby bikes would have allowed better shots.
  • It may be that some of the same shots could have been made by being, for example, more than twice as close and taking a number of overlapping shots then stitching them together.  The advantage in doing this would be to allow a poster-board print that was 20" x 30" that would still very fine detail.  The  11" x 14" poster prints had good detail, but might not if blown up much larger.
  • Using A exposure mode and setting the f/stop to the sweet range of F/8 to f/12 for the 105mm lens might have resulted in sharper images.

Driving

I carry a camera set on auto everything next to me when driving.  Earlier today there were thousands of birds flocking over a vineyard.  By the time the window rolled down I had past then so just pointed the camera back over my left shoulder without any type of aiming and caught some of them.
Birds
                Flocking over Vineyard 9 Dec 2011

A Buzzard (vulture) aring out  the blood sitting on a telephone pole.
7 Jan 2012 taken with a cell phone and this is a tiny fraction of the total image.
Maybe a 6 foot wing span?
Buzzard
              (vulture) aring out the blood

Lighting Workshop

Black back drop and various strobe lights, hired model.
Lighting Workshop
                Model: Cleo

Magic Finger Frost

On mailbox tab 17 Jan 2012 about 6:45 am.
Magic Finger
              Frost on Mailbox

Beetle on Driveway

While photographing a GPS receiver sitting on the driveway this beatle came to have a look.  Hard to take a close up of a moving animal. 
Notice the red at the base of the antennas.  Click on photo to see larger version.  If you know the name let me know it.

Beatle on
                        Driveway

Beatle on
                        Driveway
                                                                                                           

Ukiah Garden Club 5 May 2012

The first group of photos was taken outside because the flowers were inside with a mix of window and tungsten light.  What's missing from the web page is the fragrance.

Fig UGC1
Ukiah
                        Garden Club 5 May 2012
Fig UGC2
Ukiah Garden Club 5 May 2012
Fig UGC3

Ukiah Garden Club 5 May 2012


Fig UGC4
Ukiah Garden Club 5 May 2012
Fig UGC5
Ukiah
                        Garden Club 5 May 2012

After going home to get the studio flash and a translucent background the remaining shots were taken indoors bouncing the flash off the ceiling.

Fig UGC6
Ukiah Garden Club 5 May 2012

Fig UGC7
Ukiah
                        Garden Club 5 May 2012
Fig UGC8
Ukiah
                        Garden Club 5 May 2012
Fig UGC9
Ukiah Garden Club 5 May 2012
Fig UGC10
Ukiah Garden Club 5 May 2012
Fig UGC11
Ukiah Garden Club 5 May 2012
Fig UGC12
Ukiah Garden Club 5 May 2012
Fig UGC13
Ukiah
                        Garden Club 5 May 2012
Fig UGC14
Ukiah Garden Club 5 May 2012

Solar Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah

Taken from Paul's back patio near Ukiah.

16:32:06
Solar
                        Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah
17:21:44
Solar
                        Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah
17:22:49
Solar
                        Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah
18:06:52
Solar
                        Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah
18:23:46
Solar
                        Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah
18:26:47
Solar
                        Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah
18:30:59
Solar
                        Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah
18:34:11
Solar
                        Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah
18:53:47
Solar
                        Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah
19:10:18
Solar
                        Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah
19:20:12
Solar
                        Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah
19:41:03
Solar
                        Eclipse 20 May 2012 Ukiah
Cloudy at end








Locust Tree on my street

Seen while driving home in the afternoon. These are Honey Locust trees (Wiki)

Locust Tree
                        in Ukiah, CA May 2012
Locust Tree
                        in Ukiah, CA May 2012 Locust Tree in Ukiah, CA May 2012

5 June 2012 Venus Transits the Sun Ukiah

Photos taken with Nikon D300s with 300mm F2.8 Lens in the parking lot of Motorsports of Ukiah on N. State St.

15:17:50 Pacific Time after first contact but before second contact
(22:17:50 UTC)
5
                        June 2012 15:17:50 Venus Transits the Sun Ukiah
15:42:29 after second contact
5
                        June 2012 15:42:29 Venus Transits the Sun Ukiah
15:58:54
5
                        June 2012 15:58:54 Venus Transits the Sun Ukiah
16:58:31
5
                        June 2012 16:58:31 Venus Transits the Sun Ukiah

Horse

Neighbor Erin riding Oak in front of my house 13 July 2012.
Neighbor
                  Erin riding horse (Mack?) in front of my house 13 July
                  2012.

17 June 2012 Car Show Santa Rosa

Dual 4-barrel carbs on super charged Chrysler Hemi
Car Show Santa Rosa 17 June 2012 - Dual
                        4-barrel carbs on super charged Chrysler Hemi
Three 2-barrel carbs on super charged flat head Ford
Car
                        Show Santa Rosa 17 June 2012 - Three 2-barrel
                        carbs on super charged flat head Ford
Dual 4-barrel carbs on Buick (?)
Car
                        Show Santa Rosa 17 June 2012 - Dual 4-barrel
                        carbs on Buick (?)
Dual 4-barrel carbs on Buick (?)
Car
                        Show Santa Rosa 17 June 2012 - Dual 4-barrel
                        carbs on Buick (?)

Century Plant

Wiki:Agave americana or Agave
Flowers once after about 25 to 30 years after planted.
The
Agave tequilana (Wiki) is grown in Mexico and is the source of Tequila (Wiki).
Taken 12 July 2012 in Redwood Valley.

Century Plant
Century Plant
Century Plant
Century Plant
In Bloom with hummingbird
Century
                        Plant In Bloom with hummingbird


Prints

For display on a wall an 8x10" print is about the minimum size, 11x14, 16x20 or 20x30 are much better.  The problem is how to get very sharp images that large.  It takes some effort.  The print sizes shown below are based on 300 pixels per inch.  This is the print resolution needed for inspection from about 6".  If a print will only bee seen from a much greater distance then the resolution can be proportionally degraded.

Camera
Max Resolution
Theory Print
Real Print
D300s
4288 x 2848
14.3 x 9.5
12 x 8
D60
3872 x 2592
12.9 x 8.6
10 x 8

4200 x 3300

14 x 11
D300s 2x2
6000 x 4800

20 x 16
D300s 3x3
9000 x 6000

30 x 20
If this is correct then stitching a number of images together will be needed to get the required image resolution for large (20 x 30) prints.
For a 30 x 20 print it would be best to use a 3x3 mosaic of D300s images with some overlap for stitching.
The problem with stitching is that the camera needs to be moved in translation, not panning to avoid distortion.  There may be a way around this by using Photoshop perscective correction, but it's not easy if it is possible.

Giclée (Wiki)

This is a term that means using a dot matrix printer for art quality prints .  For example the Epson Professional Printers.
The Epson Stylus Pro 4900 uses 10 pigment inks and prints up to 17" wide.

Dye-sublimation printer (Wiki)

Each dot can be any color, thre's no dithering like in a dot matrix printer.  That's to say it's a continuous-tone technology, where each dot can be any color.

Computer Printers (Wiki)

The most common type is the grayscale laser printer that works by fusing toner (very small black particles).

Minilab (Wiki)

These use classical photographic chemical processes for the negative and print (two seperate machines).  They are fully automated and about the size of a chest type freezer.  The print size may be limited to 4x6 or smaller, but some can do up to 8x12.

Astronomy

Required for decent results
  • Tripod
  • ISO 1000 (instead of the stock 200)
  • Mirror Up release mode
  • Noise Reduction (Nikon: Shooting Menu\Long Exposure noise reduction: On)
  • flashlight
  • cable release
  • moonless night

Orion's
                      belt, Nikon 300mm f/2.8 3 sec ISO 1000
Orion's belt, Nikon 300mm f/2.8 3 sec ISO 1000
Arri Tripod with Camera pointing opposite direction & handle reversed.

24 Sep 2011
                      Jupiter &
24 Sep 2011
D300s + 300mm f/2.8, Mirror Up, Manual exp f/2.8 3 sec, ISO 2000, Long Exposure Noise Reduction ON
Arri Tripod with legs as short as they go (and rubber removed from top of QR adapter plate).
In this image you can see Jupiter and 3 moons.
There's a little streaking from star movement at 3 seconds and a lot of streaking for longer exposure times.
Need to try ISO 3200.
A Polar aligned star tracking mount would allow longer exposures without star trails.
x
The Sky6 sky map showing the field of view of the Nikon D300s with the 300mm f/2.8 lens
Supplied by Paul.
24 Sep
                      2011 Orion's belt ISO 2000, 2 sec f/2.8 300mm
                      Nikon D300s
Orion's belt
24 Sep 2011 0313:53 PDT
Nikon D300s w/300mm lens
ISO 2000, 2 sec f/2.8
Note there is a small amount of star trailing at 2 seconds                  
Time Exposure 4:46 am
I saw a photo taken by Chris Pugh that showed what looked like a daytime scene, but it was taken at midnight on a moonless night.
The thing that was striking was there were stars in the sky.  he said it was a 30 second time exposure.  I had just been reading:
How to Shoot the Night Sky (Introduction to Astrophotography) where the Rule of 600 is mentioned.
Rule of 600
Exposure of stars in order to avoid trails is 600 / (Focal Length in mm).
So if Chris used a 30 second exposure he must have been using a 20mm lens.  The photo at left was done using a 17 mm FL.
30 seconds, F3.5, ISO 3200 Exp Comp +5, Long Exposure Noise Reduction ON, Tripod


The Lens

Why are there so many different lens options?  They have advantages when used for certain types of photographs.  The key parameters are: What camera mounting, output image (chip) size (full frame FX or half frame DX, or one of the newer fractional frame sizes), Focal Length +(fixed or zoom), smallest and largest f/stop (manual or automatic), focusing modes (manual, in camera motor, in lens motor), Image Stabilization, ED glass, optical transfer function (Wiki), weight, price, filter thread size, compatibility with cameras (i.e. an older lens may need to be modified to be used on a modern camera or will have limited functionality).

Wiki: Camera Lens, Photographic Lens DesignOptical Lens Design

DxOMark Lens Ranking -

Chip Size

A normal 35mm film camera runs the film left to right and the frame size is 24mm high x 36 mm wide.  It's expensive to make Full Size (FX) imaging chips that are that big and they only appear on professional DSLR cameras.  A more common imaging chip for high end DSLR cameras is the half frame (DX) size.  If the view angle of a lens on a 35mm film camera is X degrees, then when that lens is used on a DX type DSLR the view angle will be X/2, i.e. it's as if a 2X tele-extender was added to the lens.

Important Note:  The aspect ratio of 35mm film is 2:3 or 1.5.   This is different from 8x10 which is 4:5 or 1.25.

Historical Note

Early view cameras used 8"x10" film, probably because the resolution of the first generation films was much poorer than today's films.  Later view cameras and the Speed Graflex  (Wiki) press cameras used 4"x5" film.  In the 1960s every camera store stocked 4x5 film in a selection of emulsions.  Contact prints, which can made without an enlarger, were common and so came 8"x10" photographic printing paper.  But there is a disconnect between the aspect ratio of 8x10 paper and the image from a 35mm film camera or today's DSLR cameras which have a 3:2 or 1.5 aspect ratio.

When making a full size print from a Digital Camera (where the most common aspect ratio is 1.5) requires a paper size with the same aspect ratio.  If some other aspect ratio is used then part of the image is being thrown away.  This is OK for most things, except where high image resolution is desired.
Common Print sizes in this ratio are (See Costco below): 4x6, 8x12, 12x18, 16x24 (not from Costco), 20x30.

The Golden Ratio (Wiki) is an aspect ratio that's very pleasing to the human eye an is 1.618....  The DSLR (35mm film) aspect ratio of 1.5 comes closer to the golden ratio than does the first generation sheet film ratio of 1.25.  So from an artistic perspective using the newer aspect ratio paper sizes makes sense.

Focal Length

This is a measure of the magnification of the lens.  The longer the focal length the closer the subject appears.
For a full frame (FX) 35mm film camera the "standard" 50mm lens has a focal about equal to the diagonal of the frame (43mm).
For a half frame (DX) digital camera a standard lens would be 25mm.
A lens with a focal length less than the standard would be called a wide angle lens and one with a longer than standard focal length would be called a telephoto lens.

The focal length is the distance from the optical center of the lens to the focal plane when the lens is focused on a subject at infinity (very far away).
When a lens is focused at the closest possible subject it is two focal lengths between the center and the subject and two focal lengths between the center and the image, or four focal lengths between the subject and it's image.  Most normal lens focus mechanisms do not have enough extension to do that so extension tubes can be added between the lens and camera body for close up work.  The better close up extension kits include a way to reverse the lens to improve it's optical performance when used for close up work.  A "close up" or macro (Nikon: micro) lens has more focus travel and typically a different optical design so it will work well when focused on close subjects.

Example

Magnyfing
                        Glass focusing distant trees: Focal Length
                        6.75", Lens diameter: 2.75" = f/2.45
Magnyfing Glass focusing distant trees
Focal Length 6.75"
Lens diameter: 2.75"
f number = 6.75"/2.75" = f/2.45

The D300s taking the photo is set at
ISO: 2000
1/5 sec & f/36.
Setup for f/number
                      Experiment

f/4 f/number
                        Experiment
Mask added for f/4
f/5.6
                        f/number Experiment
Mask added for f/5.6
f/8 f/number
                        Experiment
Mask added for f/8

The ones with smaller f/stops are too dim.
f/number Experiment
                      Close Focus
When a lens is focused as close as possible to a subject it's 2 x FL from subject to lens,
and 2 x FL from lens to image.

In this case it's about 13.5" from candle to lens and about 13.5" from lens to image.

So to change the focus of a lens from infinity to something closer you need to move
the lens away from the image plane.  This is why extender rings are used to move a lens
away from the image place for close up photography.


Rule of Thumb: For a non image (i) stablization (vibration reduction VS) lens the shutter speed should be faster than 1 / (focal length in mm).
For example for a 105mm lens the shutter speed should be faster than 1/100 sec.  But with vibration reduction turned on the shutter speed can be a stop or two slower, say 1/50 sec. 

Note that the fastest possible shutter speed on many film cameras was 1/500 sec.  That meant that the longest telephoto lens  you could hand hold was 500mm.  But modern digital cameras now have shutter speeds that are a number of stops faster.  Nikon D300s to 1/8,000 and the D60 to 1/4,000.  That means you can hand hold a much longer telephoto lens.  The addition of image stabilization adds to that.  Some modern cameras have a large optical zoom capability allowing extreme telephoto shots while hand holding the camera, something a cold war spy only could dream about.

Speed

How fast is that lens?  The lens speed is a measure of how much light it can gather.  This is expressed by the wide open f/stop of the lens.  A classical glass lens will have a typical speed for a given focal length, for example 300mm and f/4.  A more modern "Extra-low Dispersion" (ED) lens designs uses one or more  (Wiki)
Fluoride glass lens elements.  They are a faster lens, for example 300mm and f/2.8.  They are also much more expensive.

Bokeh (Wiki) (Ken Rockwell)

 This is a lens property that has to do whih how out of focus areas of an image look. Nikon makes Defocus Control, or DC lenses which allow manual adjustment of the spherical abberation so that  you can control bokeh.  These are NOT for getting a soft focus image, but rather to control the out of focus background.  They tend to be pricey.  I think only available in 105mm and 135mm focal lengths.

5841590 Aberration controllable optical system, Nikon Corp, Nov 24, 1998, 359/763 ; 359/659; 359/764
7715118 Macro Lens System, Hoya Corp, May 11, 2010, 359/754 ; 359/791 - a macro lens with controled spherical abberation
6950246 Imaging optical system and apparatus using the same, Olympus Corp, Sep 27, 2005, 359/771 ; 359/772; 359/773

Resolution

Optical resolution (Wiki) is a measure of how fine a detail the lens will show.  There are different ways to measure this, one is called Modulation Transfer Function (Wiki) and another is a test chart (for example the ISO 12233 Test Chart).

There's a limit to resolution based on the diameter of the objective (primary) lens.  The larger the lens the higher the resolution.  This is why astronomical telescopes have such large primary optics (typically a mirror). 

DigitUnderstanding image sharpness part 1: Introduction to resolution and MTF curves by Norman Koren
 
About ISO 12233 Chart Data and Sample Images - Digital SLR and Lens Image Quality Comparison -as you move the mouse the arrow points to the right or left so you can compare two lenses.  I haven't checked all the other lenses but the Nikon 300mm f/2.8 seems to be the sharpest of them all.

For most lens designs there is a range of f/stops where the lens performs best and that's in the middle of it's range of f/stops.  For example the Nikon 105mm Micro Nikkor has a range of f/2.8 to f/36 but has the best resolution between f/8 and f/12.

Math

The common way a camera lens is specified is by it's Focal Length (FL) and f/stop, such as 300mm f/2.8.
To find the diameter divide the FL by the f/stop = 300 mm / 2.8 = 107.1 mm  (divide by 25.4 to get inches) 107.1 / 25.4 = 4.22" lens diameter.

The diffraction limited resolution = (1.22 * wavelength) / (lens diameter) [ all in the same units]
So there's a limit on how good a lens can be based on the primary optic's diameter.  But most lenses are not diffraction limited.  The typical lens has different resolution for different f/stops and typically the center f/stops are the best.

Cameras


D60
D300s
Sensor Size
23.6 x 15.8 mm 23.6 x 15.8 mm
Sensor Pixels
3,872 x 2,592 4,288 x 2,848
Pixel Size
6.09 x 6.09 um
5.58 x 5.54

Lens

The angular optical resolution of a lens (Wiki) depends on the objective diameter.
Model
AF-S 18mm f/3.5 AF-S 55mm f/5.6
105mm f/2.8G
300mm f/2.8
Objective dia D (FL/f) mm
5.14
9.8
37.5
107
Angular Resolution (wide open) (SIN-1(671E-9/D) arc sec
27
14
3.7
1.29
Spatial Resolution (wide open) (0.671 * f) um
2.3
3.8
1.9
1.9
In astronomy the angular resolution is a measure of how well you can see things like double stars.  But the Earth's atmosphere puts a limit on the "seeing" on the order of a few arc seconds.  Objective diameters less than or equal to about 1 foot have an advantage because they are looking through a smaller volume of air and so get more clear viewing time.  As the objective diameter gets larger then there's more chance of turbulance somewhere in the optical path.

Also in astronomy how faint a star you can see depends on the usable area of the objective.  For a lens the useable area is the objective diameter.  But for reflecting telescopes that have a central obstruction you need to subtrace the obstruction's area from the objective diameter to get the light gathering area.

Star spot size vs. f/number

f/2.8
f/4
f/5.6
f/8
f/11
f/16
1.9 um
2.7
3.8
5.4
7.4
10.7
The implication of this table is that for a diffraction limited lens opened wide the spot size may be smaller than a pixel, i.e. the lens is much better than the sensor.  But as the lens is stopped down, at f/8 for the two Nikon cameras shown above, the spot size matches the pixel size so the lens and sensor are balanced.  More stopping down will increase the spot size and degrade the image.

Photodo - has some lens resolution Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) data
http://www.the-digital-picture.com - has a lot of sample lens test chart photos
You can compare one lens to itself at different f/stops.  For example the 105mm f/2.8 Macro lens is best when at f/8 - f/11 and not as sharp at f/2.8.

Macro (Close Up) photography

A standard camera lens can only focus as close as a foot to two so the scale of the recorded image is much smaller than the subject.  A macro (Nikon calls them Micro) lens typically can make an image that's the same size as the subject (a 1:1 ratio).  True Micro photography is where the image is larger than the subject.  But with modern digital cameras it's possible to take a macro image (i.e. <= 1:1) and then display it on a computer screen and now it's a micro image that's larger than life.

There are special considerations needed to take good macro photographs such as flowers.

Microscope Objective or C-mount Lens for Macro photography

Some of the focus stacking images on the web of things like the eyes of a fly or other insects it think are fantastic.  In order to make those images a microscope is typically used.  But it seems like a better option would be to adapt a microscope objective (or a C-mount movie/TV camera lens) to the Nikon and use the StackShot automated camera motion control. That would eliminate the need for the microscope.
17 Oct 2011 - working on how to do this.

Telephoto Photography

Telephoto photography has it's own special considerations.

Extension Rings, Tele-Converters & other Lens Related Accessories

Focus

The lowest cost cameras have a fixed lens, i.e. there is no provision to focus.  The lens is preset to the hyperfocal distance (Wiki).  All other cameras have some provision to control the focus of the lens.  When a lens is focused at infinity the film is behind the lens a distance called the focal length.  The closest a subject can be is twice the focal length of the lens and then the film is also two focal lengths behind the lens.  The range of focus for most lens designs is typically not enough to get the lens two focal lengths in front of the film and that's why using extension rings between the camera body and lens allows closer focusing for macro photography.

When the focus of a lens is adjusted the lens is moved back and forth relative to the imaging chip.  This changes the magnification.  The amount of magnification change is very small if the subject is many many focal distances in front of the lens.  For example when using a 50mm lens to take a photo of a subject that's 10 feet in front of the lens the radio of object distance to lens FL is about 61 which is much greater than 10 (much greater).

But when doing macro photography where the subject to lens distance is close to the lens focal length the change in magnification is significent.  This may be a problem if you want to do focus stacking because the plate scale (Wiki) will be different for each image.  To avoid that problem when focus stacking the lens is not adjusted and the whole camera is moved between exposures, hence the StackShot.

Viewfinder

Older cameras have a provision to add a diopter correction lens to the viewfinder to correct for your eyes.  Modern cameras have an adjustment that allows making a correcton for your vision.  I have my camera set so that no glasses are worn when taking photos.  When looking into the viewfinder adjust the focus so that the non image features (digital readouts, fudicial marks in the field of view) are in sharp focus.  Then activate the auto focus feature and now both the image and features should all be in sharp focus.

Dominant Eye (Wiki)

Most people have a strong eye and a weaker eye.  To determine which of your eyes is dominant, with both eyes open point you finger at some object then, without moving your hand, use your left and right eye to view the scene.  With one eye the object will be lined up and with the other eye it will not be lined up.  When looking through the camrea viewfinder it's best to use your dominant eye.

Self Timer

Pressing the shutter button is one of the most disruptive things you can do in terms of moving the camera.  That's going to blur the image, so I'm putting this note under Focus.  For hand held shooting my standard self timer setting is 3 seconds.  So after pressing the shutter I pay attention to framing and being still.

Hyperfocal Distance

Most 35mm Single Lens Reflex cameras (Wiki: SLR) support the use of an interchangeable lens that contains a means of focusing and setting the f/stop.  It was common to have a distance scale for focusing work against an index mark.  Adjacent to the index mark there were other depth of focus (Wiki) index marks in different colors.  Acceptable focus would be obtained between the two depth of focus marks for the selected f/stop.
Nikon
                      200mm f/4 Lest set to Hyperfocal Distance @ f/16
The Nikon lens Aperture is set to f/22 and the focus is set so that infinity is on the left yellow depth of field index.  That brings the best focus point to about 50 feet while the depth of focus extends to 30 feet, i.e. it's set at the hyperfocal distance.

Note that when set at f/11 (green depth of focus index lines) the depth of focus is narrower (maybe infinity to 50 feet) so for the maximum depth of focus you want the smallest aperture setting (highest f/number).

When taking portraits where you want the background to be out of focus setting the f/stop to the largest aperture (smallest f/number) is the thing to do.  Also using a mild to strong telephoto lens helps to separate the subject from the background in terms of focus.  This may cause parts of the head to be out of focus, so normally you should focus on the eyes.

The method of focusing a digital SLR camera has changed as they have evolved.  Basically the camera body has a computer that looks at how the image changes as the focus is adjusted and sets the focus automatically.  But, there are times when it just does not work.  For example if there is not enough light or the scene does not have straight lines running in the correct orientation, etc.  In these cases switching to manual focus is a solution.  There are number of different ways this is done that are covered by many patents.

Focusing Modes

Manual Mode

As the name implies, focus is done by manually turning the focus ring on the lens.

Single Mode

This is the most common focus mode and is probably the default mode for the camera.  In single mode focus the camera goes through the focus routine just once, typically when the shutter is at the half pressed position.  Some Nikon cameras have a provision that will not allow an exposure to be made if the camera thinks it's out of focus.  To get around this you can switch to Manual focus Mode.

Continuous Mode

When the shutter is  half pressed the camera goes into the focus routine and stays in the routine.  The idea is that as the subject moves the camera will follow focus.  For example when taking a macro photograph of a flower that's being blown by wind single mode focus does not work because the focus needs to dynamically follow the flower, but using continuous mode solves that problem.

Speed of focusing

The early auto focusing was done by means of a motor contained inside the camera body that drove the focus mechanism in the lens.  The advantage of this method was lower lens cost since only one motor was needed.  But a disadvantage was that for a large lens the time to focus was slower than you could get by using a larger motor in the lens.  The newer family of lens has the focus motor in the lens and they are faster and quieter than the camera body focus motor system.

Depth of Field (=Depth of Focus)

A digital camera operates under the same laws of optics (Wiki: optics, camera lens) as a film camera and there's a limit to the depth of focus that can be obtained for a given exposure (see: hyperfocal above).  Cameras are limited to what can be done in a single exposure to the hyperfocal distance.  Digital cameras can generate images that have a much higher depth of field by taking a number of images, all with the same settings including focus my moving the cameera, and then stacking the images (Wiki) (Digital Photography 201: Image Stacking) using post processing of those images in something like Photoshop.  Note: changing the foucs changes the magnification making stacking difficult to impossible.

f/stop

The Depth Of Field (Wiki) can be decreased by opening the lens wide (small f number like f/2.8) or can be increased by stopping down the lens (high f number like f/36).

Lens Focal Length

When a longer focal length lens is used and the subject is framed the same as when a shorter focal length lens is used (i.e. you stand back with the longer lens) the depth of field is less with the longer lens.  This is why a "Portrait" lens is typically twice the focal length of a "Standard" lens.

Focus Lock

This allows aiming the camera at the subject and setting and locking focus.  Then  you can re-frame the scene so the subject is no longer at the focus point in the frame.

Mirror Up

See Mirror Up under Release Modes.

Tripod

Even though the 105mm lens has image stabilization (Vibration Reduction VR in Nikon speak) there's a limit to what it can accomplish.  Even a tripod is not as stable as you would desire.  Some things that can be done to improve the stability of a tripod are:
  • lower and lock the crank up top extension
  • collapse the legs to their shortest length
  • lock down all the clamps
  • use the camera's built in timer rather than a cable release or the worse thing, pressing the shutter manually

Close Up Photography

There are some special considerations involved in close up photography.

Magnification

Most camera lenses will not focus on a subject closer than a yard or more from the camera.  So a special "macro" lens is needed which typically allow making the size of the image the same as the size of the subject (1:1).

Depth of Focus

The depth of focus is very shallow.  There's a couple of ways of addressing this.
1.    Stop down the lens.  Many macro lenses are capable of f/36 or smaller.  This will increase the depth of focus but presents two new problems.
a. It takes a lot of light and/or a long exposure time when working at f/36.  In order to get light on a subject it's best to be using a telephoto lens so the subject is not extremely close to the front of the lens.  For example when using the 105mm Nikon (they call it a Micro) lens the light from the pop-up flash makes a shadow on the subject.  So off camera light is needed.   When stopping down that far (past f/5.6) the resolution of the lens is very much degraded (see resolution above).
2. Use Focus Stacking (See Digital Photography 201: Stacking)  The idea is to take a number of exposures (on a tripod, mirror up) and then stack the images in Photoshop or other focus stacking software to improve the depth of focus.  It's best to have the camera in a manual mode for all functions (shutter speed, f/stop, focus) and not change any of them during the sequence of exposures.  That means you should move the camera rather than change the focus setting.  The reason is that changing the focus also changes the magnification.  That's why I got a Macro Focusing Rail.
4 Way Macro
                        Focusing Rail Slider for Close-up Photography This is really two rails that can be stacked.  The idea is that in addition to doing focus stacking you could also do sticthing left to right, or they can be stacked so both work in the same direction.

The large knob is connected to a pinion gear and and there's a rack gear on the bottom of the unit.  The small knob controls the amount of friction, but does not really lock the slide.

A Nickle coin works well for the 1/4-20 screw head (top right of photo).  Note this screw is too long to be used on the Nikon D300s.  Maybe if the correct size washers can be found to install by removing the screw and putting the washers between the screw head and the slide (not between the slide and camera)?
4 Way
                        Macro Focusing Rail Slider for Close-up
                        Photography

Showing the two units connected in the same direction.

When a single unit is used the camera support bracket is not on the center line and I don't see how it can be changed to be on the center line since the support bracket to rail mounting holes are a rectangular pattern.


Exposure

In photography exposure is the total amount of light that is allowed to reach the light sensor either film or digital.  It's the product of brightness and time.  The camera settings that control the exposure are the f/stop and shutter speed.

The lowest cost cameras had a fixed shutter speed that allowed correct exposure for a normal daytime scene when the recommended film was used.  For example the exposure for a normal outdoor scene in direct sunlight is f/16 at 1/(ASA or ISO film speed).  For example for a film speed of 200 (ASA or ISO) the exposure would be f/16 at 1/200 of a second shutter speed.

Digital cameras replace the film with a Charge Coupled Device (Wiki: CCD) or CMOS image sensor (Wiki:APS).  This sensor determines the quality of the resulting image.  The most common parameter that's advertised is the number of pixels (Wiki).  Generally more is better and costs more.

ASA or ISO Film Speed

Film speed is a measure of a film's sensitivity to light.  Higher film speed numbers mean the film will work better in dimmer light.  The resolution of a film is inversely proportional to it's film speed.  For example films used in the graphic arts where very fine detail is needed have film speeds in the single digits.  Films for use in night photography may have a film speed in the thousands but the resulting image has a lot of grain structure.  These are linear scales so an ISO of 400 is twice as sensitive to light as an ISO of 200.

In digital cameras there is also noise at the higher film speeds.  For astronomical use (i.e. taking pictures of mostly black) the Cannon digital SLRs have an advantage over the Nikon digital SLRs because of how they handle black images (dark frames in astronomy speak).

Exposure Value (Wiki)

This is a logarithmic way to express the exposure (combination of f/stop and shutter speed).  For example EV 16 is equivalent to f/16 @ 1/125 (Wiki).They range from EV -6 (f/16 @ 256 minutes) to EV 21 (f/16 @ 1/8,000).  Some cameras, like the Hasselblad (official page, my comments), have the lens rings for f/stop and shutter speed locked together (you need to pull them apart to change the EV) so that once set any rotation of the combined ring is the same exposure value.

EV = Log2(N*N/t) where N is the f/# and t is shutter speed in seconds.
Log2(X) = Loge(X)/Loge(2) = LN(X)/LN(2)

Example: f/16 @ 1/200 sec
EV = LN(16*16/(1/200))/LN(2)LN(256 *200)/LN(2) = LN(51200)/LN(2) = 15.64

Stops (Wiki)

In photography a "stop" is a change in the exposure that either doubles or halves the prior exposure.  A sequence of f/stops that differ by one stop is:
1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8 11, 16, 22, 32, 45, 64, 90  these f-numbers are the ratio of the focal length of the lens divided by the diameter of the entrance pupil.

Note that alternate f/numbers double, for example:
0.7

1.4

2.8

5.6

11

22

44

88


1

2

4

8

16

32

64

128

Note that an exposure of f/16 at 1/200 sec is the same as an exposure of f/22 at 1/100 sec.  That's to say the image sensor will receive the same amount of light for either of these exposures.

The number of possible equivalent exposures that are available depends on the limits on the lens possible f/stops, the camera's possible shutter speeds and the sensitivity of the image sensor (ISO number).

Metering Modes

The last generation of film SLR cameras had digital metering modes.  One of the fantastic things about digital exposure modes is that they can do things that took a lot of effort to accomplish when manual control was used.  The metering modes are based on various types of light meters.

Manual
This is the same as it was on the early cameras.  The photographer sets the f/stop and shutter speed.  Metering is off.
Spot
A small spot, typically in the center of the frame, is used to measure the light and set the exposure.
Center Weighted
An area in the center of the frame, usually inside a circle that's displayed in the viewfinder, is used to set the exposure where the center gets more weight than the outside of the circle.  This mode mimics the way early light meters worked.
Matrix
A number of areas, in some manufacturer specific arrangement, are used to analyze the image and decide on the exposure.  Typically this mode is required for the camera to do most of it's high technology features.
Exposure Lock
Allows locking the exposure while the frame is aimed somewhere and then moving the view somewhere else to make the exposure.

Exposure Modes

This controls how the shutter speed and f/stop are determined.  It's different from metering mode which relates to how the light is measured.
Consumer Cameras
Auto
In this mode the camera sets both the f/stop and the shutter speed.  In the simplest case this amounts to a Point-And-Shoot mode where no control by the photographer is involved in the exposure.
Auto
P:   Program Auto Exp
Tv: Shutter Time Value
Av: Aperture Value
M:  Manual
C: Common

Movie
Stitch
SCN: Scene
       Indoor
       Sunset
       Night Scene
       Fireworks
       Beach
       Aquarium
       Foliage
       Snow
       High ISO
Sports
Night Snapshot
Portrait
Cannon SX-20
Digital
                          Camera Mode Dial

Clockwise
AUTO1 - Point & Shoot (the flash will automatically pop-up if needed)
P - Programmed
S - Shutter priority
A - Aperture priority
M - Manual shutter & aperture
Night Portrait1
Close up1
Sports1
Child1
Landscape1
Portrait1
Auto (Flash Off)1

Nikon D60 (See Nikon page D60 paragraph)
Nikon D60 Mode Selection Dial

Professional Cameras
Manual (M)
In this mode the f/stop and shutter are manually set.
Shutter Priority (S)
In this mode the photographer sets the shutter speed and the light metering sets the f/stop.
Aperture Priority(A)
In this mode the photographer sets the f/stop and the light metering sets the shutter speed.
 
These statues are in front of a house and shaded by large trees.  There's two ways to get a pleasing background:
1) stand somewhere so that the house does not show, i.e. only plants in the background,
2) open the lens as wide as possible to minimize the depth of field (see DOF) (f/2.8 for the 105mm lens & f/2.8 for the 300 mm ED AI-S Lens)

479 Clay St.  Photos taken in A mode.  No coping, Only format conversion in Photoshop, no adjustments.  Nikon D300s.

Lens
35mm
f/2.8
Photos
                            taken in A mode at f/2.8 35mm lens
Photos
                            taken in A mode at f/2.8 35mm lens
Photos
                            taken in A mode at f/2.8 35mm lens
70mm
f/2.8
Photos
                            taken in A mode at f/2.8 70mm lens
Photos
                            taken in A mode at f/2.8 70mm lens
Photos taken in A mode at f/2.8 70mm
                              lens
105mm
f/2.8
Photos
                            taken in A mode at f/2.8 105mm lens
Photos
                            taken in A mode at f/2.8 105mm lens
Photos
                            taken in A mode at f/2.8 105mm lens
300mm
f/2.8

Photos
                            taken in A mode at f/2.8 300mm lens
Photos
                            taken in A mode at f/2.8 105mm lens

These are in the Sun.  Which makes it harder to see the subtle colors of the patina.
105mm
                            f/2.8



I'd like to try taking this photo when the subjects are in shade.  At about 5:40 pm on 8 Aug all the statues were in direct sunlight.  Checking Sun Rise Sun Set shows that sunset today is at 8:18 with twilight at 8:48, so a time between those would be best.  Or between 5:51am and 6:20 am tomorrow morning.  The idea is to take a shot framed like the one above at f/2.8 (note the front bird is slightly out of focus) except with the front bird in focus and another with the rear bird in focus in order to focus stack.  In addition an exposure with the lens stopped down so they both are in focus in a single shot.




Programmed (P)
In this mode the camera sets both the f/stop and the shutter speed.  In the simplest case this amounts to a Point-And-Shoot mode where no control by the photographer is involved in the exposure. 

Exposure Compensation

On many cameras by pressing a button and then turning a knob the Exposure Value can be changed from whatever it was.  This is typically used after an exposure has been made and you want a lighter or darker image.  On cameras with a visible histogram no pixels at the left means overexposed and no pixels on the left means underexposed.

High Dynamic Range (Wiki)

A theoretical ideal would be to expose the image so that you could see detail (brightness variations) in the deepest shadows and in the highlights.  But there are limits to the dynamic range that can be seen and captured and displayed.  The human eye can see somewhere in the range of 10 to 14 stops, film 7 stops, DLSR camera 11 stops, (Wiki).  Note the Wiki number for an LCD screen applies only to first generation screens.  The modern LCD screens as used for HD TV that have either matrix LED back lighting or dynamic edge lighting have much higher contrast ratios, but to see them the room needs to be dark and probably have the walls and everything in the room painted black (movie theaters are mostly this way).  Also see Dark Frame Subtraction below.

Lab #02 Measure the Dynamic Range

By setting the metering mode to spot and the exposure mode to Aperture (A) (the ISO can be 200 or as needed) then point to an area where you want to see highlight detail do a half shutter press and make a mental note of the shutter speed, then point to an area where you want to see shadow detail and do a half shutter press and make a mental note of the shutter speed.  Each doubling (or halfing) of the shutter speed is one stop.

Example 1:
ISO 200 & A = f/16

Shutter speeds:  wispy clouds = 1/640, tree trunk 1/30
1/30 (/2=) 1/60 (/2=) 1/120 (/2=) 1/240 (/2=) 1/480 (/2=) 1/960  so a little over 4 stops.
Calculating Exposure Value
f/16 @ 1/640 = EV 17.32 and f/16 @ 1/30 = EV 12.91 difference is 4.41 stops.

Image Stacking

A way to extend the dynamic range is to make a number of exposures where the f/stop and focus are the same but the shutter speed is varied.  This is done with the camera on a tripod.  Then the different images can be stacked in resulting in an image with greater dynamic range.

Photoshop CS4 can do HDR by means of stacking, see Digital Photography 201: Stacking Images.  There are other programs that do HDR image stacking.

In the Camera

The high end Nikon cameras can do some of this in the camera at the time of exposure. In the Shooting Menu it's called Active D-Lighting (Active Dynamic-Lighting).  I like the result of the Nikon in camera better than the stacked image method.  The images no only look better in terms of brightness range they also seem to be in better focus (maybe stacking results in a slight degradation of focus).

This is different from the Nikon Dynamic-Lighting that is done after an image has already been taken in the Retough Menu "D-Lighting". 

Dark Frame Subtraction

Nikon calles this Noise Reduction (NR) and it shows up on the D300s in the Shooting Menu with the title: Long exp. NR  On/Off.

This is a common practice in astronomical photography.  The idea is that large area imaging chips are not perfect, that's to say there may be some individual hot pixels or maybe one edge of the active area is near a part of the IC that's thermally hotter than the rest of the chip so there are some hot pixels in that area.  A way to mitigate the effect of these hot pixels is to first take the normal exposure and take a darf frame with the same camera settings.  Then subtract the dark frame from the normal image.  For example if the normal image was of a star field and there was a hot pixel, then in the normal image you might see and "extra star".  But after the dark frame is subtracted the "extra star" is removed.

This method is not limited to astro photography, but works on any scene were there's a lot of dark areas were you want to see detail.

Lab #1 f/16 Sunny Day Rule (Wiki)

Take four photographs (best if done on a tripod so that each will be of the same scene).
1.    P or Automatic mode
2.    M or manual mode shutter speed = 1/ISO & f/16
3.    A or Aperature mode f/16 & auto shutter
4.    S or Shutter mode 1/ISO & auto f/stop

If the camera is working properly you would expect the P, S and A exposures to all be the same and maybe the M exposure to be off a little.

Here is an example for the Nikon D300s
Mode
f/
time
EV
Note: P, S & A=14
something is wrong
 since the EV for
M is off by 1.6 stops
P
8
1/250
13.96
S
9
1/200
13.98
A
16
1/60
13.91
M
16
1/200
15.64
Troubleshooting:  Tried different lens.
 Tried pushing and holding two green buttons to reset camera. 
Tried Resetting the Shooting and Custom menues (second item from top).
Sent question to Ask Nikon - 23 Aug 2011.  The response was switch to spot metering.
Nikon D300s in spot metering
Mode
f/
time
EV
The result of spot meteringis no change.
The results are the same as before.
P
8
1/250
13.96
S
9
1/200
13.98
A
16
1/60
13.91
M
16
1/200
15.64
The only thing I've been able to think of is a problem with the camera's ISO calibration.  When in any of the automatic exposure modes (P, A, S) the camera works fine, but when using the f/16 sunny day rule it's underexposing by 1.6 f/stops.

Here is data on the Nikon D300 (not s)  ISO = 200
Mode
f/
time
EV

P
13
1/640 16.72

S
22
1/200 16.56

A
16
1/400 16.64

M
16
1/200 15.64



Here is the Nikon D60 data:
Mode
f/
time
EV
only off by 1/3 stop.
P
7.1
1/800
15.30
S
16
1/200
15.64
A
16
1/200
15.64
M
16
1/200
15.64

Comment

The Nikon D60 shows an Exposure Vlaue of 15.6 in all four exposure modes as does the Nikon D300 and D300s when in Manual metering mode.
The discrepency occurs with the Nikon D300 and D300s when in one of the automatic exposure modes (P, A, S) where the D300 (P, S, A) reports and EV of 16.6 and the D300s (P, S, A) reports 14.  Very strange.

Image Sensor

Most image sensors (Wiki) are made using either CCD (Wiki) or CMOS (Wiki) technology and are made of Silicon using common semiconductor fabrication (Wiki) methods.  The cost to process a wafer is essentially independent of how many parts are on the wafer so the smaller each part is the lower is it's cost.  For a monochrome image sensor a pixel is one photo diode on the chip, but for a color sensor a pixel is made up of some number of red, green and blue pixels for example the Bayer color filter (Wiki) where there are two green, one red and one blue diode per pixel or a larger number when the camera format is set to output a smaller number of pixels per image.

DxOMark ranking of DSLR image sensors for color depth (portraits), dynamic range (landscapes) and low light - hi ISO (sports).

    Physical Size

35 mm film (Wiki) is 24mm high and 36 mm wide (camera in normal landscape position) which is a 1:1.5 aspect ratio.  Only very high end DSLR cameras have full size image sensors because they are expensive.  Most DSLR image sensors are smaller than a 35 mm film frame (Wiki).  If you have a lens that works on a 35 mm camera and use that lens on a DSLR with an image sensor that's smaller than a full frame then the effective magnification is higher than you would get on the 35mm camera.  One way this is expressed is "crop factor" which is 1 for 35 mm film, 1.5 for the Nikon DX sensors, etc.

    Number of Pixels

When the number of pixels is very small the image has grain.  Screen printing is in the 50 lines per inch area and a 600 DPI laser printer is around 100 lines per inch.  High end photographic prints are at 300 DPI.  So to make an 8" x 12" print the image should be 2400 x 3600 pixels which takes a 8.6 Mega pixel image sensor.  So for most practical photographic needs image sensor sizes higher than this don't offer an advantage.

    Size of Pixels

Each pixel is like a bucket that can hold some number of photons.  The smaller the pixel the fewer photons it can hold.  Because of noise there's a radio of the maximum number of photons to the noise level and the number of bits in the analog to digital converter used depends on this ratio.  Cameras that have excellent low light performance (Nikon D3S) are full frame but only 12 Mega pixel chips with a pixel pitch is 8.4 um.

Release Mode

This has to do with how the sutter release will occur.

Single Frame (S)

Normal operation.
Note: If the auto focus mode is set to prevent an exposure when the image is out of focus pressing the shutter may not cause an exposure.  For a first time user this looks like the camera is broken.  (guess how I know this).
One way around this is to switch to Manual Focus Mode.
Another way is to change the  _____ setting under Menu / ? / ?

Continuous Low Speed (CL)

1 to 7 frames per second.  Set in Custom Settings D5

Continuous High Speed (CH)

Up to 7 frames per second as long as the shutter is held down.

Quiet (Q)

sound effects turned off and mirror movement slowed down?

Self-Timer (clock icon)

The self timer adds a delay after the shutter release is full down.  BUT, the focusing happens when the shutter release is at half down so there's no focusing after the timer trips the shutter.  Therefore not good for self portraits.

Mirror Up (MUP)

A drawback of the SLR design is that the mirror needs to be raised prior to an exposure.  The "mirror slap" does move the camera.  On the Hasselblad it's a real problem.  On the Nikon D300s it's still noticeable, that's why they have a Mirror Up (Mu) option on the Release Mode Dial at the upper left (viewed from behind).  When the shutter is at half press the camera does the auto focus and at full press the mirror locks up.  If you wait about 30 seconds the exposure is made.

Color Balance

In film cameras the color balance (White Balance) is determined by the film.  So if the light does not match the film in terms of color temperature a correction must be made or the color balance will be way off.

It turns out that the Nikon D300s and D60 have AUTOmatic as the default setting for color balance.  So, when a photo is taken of the color test chart (see Bruce Lindbloom below) using strobe lights or an incandescent lamp the resulting images are identical.  That's to say that the AUTO mode works.  The special lens caps & color targets that are available may not be needed for these camera models, or may only be needed for very exacting color rendering requirements.

Note that when using a RAW file format, such as NEF for Nikon cameras, you can make white balance adjustments in the Adobe Camera Raw (ACR) application just by clicking on a part of the scene that you know containe no color, such as a white background or a gray card.  So if when taking photos where color balance might be an issue you may want to include a gray card in the first frame to set white balance.  Then in ACR make a group of all shots taken in that light and as a group set the color balance for all of them based on the gray (or known white) reference.

In order for the colors in an image to look like we're used to seeing them the camera needs to be set for the color temperature of the light that falling on the subject and background.  The default camera setting is for daylight as the source of light.  If a photo is taken indoors where the light is from incandescent bulbs the color in the final image will appear to orange.  If the indoor light is from cool white florescent lamps then the image will appear too green. 

There are a number of ways to get the desired color balance.  I say "desired" rather than correct because for artistic reasons you may want to deviate from the "correct" color balance which would render each color in such a way that it was as close as possible to matching the subject so that the final image is more pleasing to the eye.  This usually means warming up the color temperature when there are skin tones in the photo.

http://www.brucelindbloom.com/ - has technical info related to color spaces - After downloading the four reference images, when that folder was selected using the Costco Java applet only two images were in the directory (probably the 8 bit per channel images).  The preview images were very different one had a lot more dynamic range than the other (maybe the gamma 2.2 image).  I've ordered a 16x20 posterboard to both see how it looks and to use as a test subject for White Balance tests.
Bruce
            Lindbloom color test chart image from 16x20 print on
            posterboard

Camera Color Setting

For Nikon SLR cameras there are color balance settings.  These can be accessed three ways:
1. Pressing the WB button and turning the sub command (front) dial.
2. Using the White Balance menu:
3. Pressing the WB button and turning the Main command (rear) dial.
D300s
Shooting Menu
White Balance
D60
Shooting Menu
White Balance

AUTO AUTO Requires "D" (Distance is sent to camera)
or "G" (camera controls aperture) lens.
Takes into account the built-in camera flash.
Incandescent Incandescent
Florescent Florescent
Flash Flash
Cloudy Cloudy
Shade Shade
Choose color temp. -
1. Pressing the WB button and turning the sub command (front) dial.
PREset Manual PREset Manual The white balance is measured using a gray or white subject
or is transfered from another image stored in the camera that
has the desired color balance.

There are special lens caps with white translucent material (on order 22 Aug 2011) and also special two sided "lens) that has slots (on order 22 Aug 2011).  These are to support the PREset Manual color balance mode where you acutally measure the light.  More on this later.

When the Nikon D300s is set to AUTO color balance it automatically corrects the color balance (white balance).  For example the photos of the test chart when illuminated by studio flash units looks the same as when illuminated by a 4800K tungsten lamp.

Flash On Camera

Many cameras have built in flash.  Some are always active and others are of the pop-up type that automatically pop-up or that require manual opening.  These are low power (maybe 10 Watt Seconds) and so have limited use.

Red Eye (Wiki)

When the flash is close to the lens it may cause the subject's eyes to glow red.  This typically happens in dim settings with cats, people, etc.  Most cameras with a built-in flash have a Red Eye Reduction mode where there is a short flash that preceeds the exposure that causes the subject's pupils to close down prior to the actual flash exposure.

Distance

The light falls off as the square of distance, so if a subject is properly exposed by the flash at 4 feet then at 8 feet (2 x the distance) the light will be 1/4 as bright.  This effect can be used to cause the background to be black.
Flash in Daytime to get
                    Black Background Photo taken in the daytime.  Nikon D300s with SB-900 flash.
A mode set to f/36.
If you want the light to be brighter at some distance then increase the camera's ISO speed and open to a small f/stop (for example f/2.8).

Fill Flash

It may be possible to control the flash output so that instead of providing all the light on the subject, it will only provide light that's 1 or 2 stops less.  This allows filling in shadows that otherwise would be black to very dark.  This can have make outdoor photos much more pleasing.

Watt Seconds

Is the energy stored in the capacitor that discharges into the flash tube to make light.  It is not related to the watt rating shown on a household light bulb.  Watt seconds are the same a jo(and probably most on camera flash units are similar) uses a 1,400 uF capacitor and charges it to 300 Volts, so WS = 1/2 * 1.4E-9 * 300 * 300 = 63 WS.  Most of these on camera flashes use a smaller capacitor maybe 200 uF so they have more like 10 WS energy.

Guide Number

The Guide Number (Wiki) is a measure of the light output from a flash (bulb, or electronic).  It assumes the shutter is open long enough to caputre all the light.  It also assumes the film speed is ISO = 100.  Since this is the linear ISO number multiplying the ISO number by 4 should double the distance (the same as doubling the guide number).

Guide Number = (flash to subject distance) * f/number.  Note guide numbers have a length unit, such as 90 feet or 30 meters.
Note:  Lght falls off in what's called the inverse square law (think of the wave front as a sphere who's area is expanding as the square of the distance from the center).  The f/number relates to the diameter of the effective lens opening and so is proportional to the square of the light gathering area of the lens.
The lamp converts electrical energy to light at about 40 lumens per watt.

The D300s built-in flash has a guide number of 56 feet when ISO is 200.  The SB-900 guide number varies beween 13 meters (42.6 feet) to 57 meters (187 feet) depending on how the flash zoom is set (and at an ISO of 100).  Notice that the built-in flash is specified at ISO 100, but the external flash is at ISO 200 (ISO 200 is the lowest value unless you degrade the image).

Digital Files

The key difference between film photography and digital photography is that with digital you get a file instead of a negative.  The digital file allows doing much more with the image than is possible with a physical negative.  As the number of pixels in the image sensor gets larger so does the file size the camera produces so there's a trade off between how many photos can be stored in the camera vs. the quality of the resulting images.  Some cameras produce images that take up so much file space that they can only hold a single image and so are called "tethered" meaning that they are best used while connected to a computer.  Examples of this are astronomical cameras and Hasselblad digital cameras.

There are advantages to connecting DSLR cameras to a computer when in  a studio setting.

Image Size

Most digital cameras allow the photographer to select what size images will be stored.  The default setting may be a medium size offering a compromise between maximum image quality and maximum number of images on the memory medium.  I set my camera to the maximum available image size and live with whatever the number of images stored.  This way there is the most room to work with the image in post processing.

    Types

There are a number of file types that can be used to hold images, both still and moving.  (Wiki: Image File Formats, Comparison of Graphic File Formats).  Each of them came about because it offered something special for a specific application.  Only a small number of them are used as the output file type for cameras, which are the ones listed below.  Others are used for things like printing, web browsers, scientific applications like astronomy, computer aided design (Autocad), etc.

.jpg

By far the most common file type is the jpg. (Wiki: jpeg Joint Photographic Expert Group).  It's advantage is that the file size can be smaller than other file types like bit map (Wiki: bmp)  I convert to this format as the last step when using an image for a web page or to email someone, but do not use it as a camera output file type if the camera supports a non lossy file format.  The reason is that every time a .jpg file is opened in and subsequently saved the quality is degraded, sort of like working with successive generations of an analog film image.

.tiff

Tagged Image File Format (Wiki) is an option on many cameras.  It's a loss-less file format so the image does not degrade with multiple generations.  The Nikon D300s generates a file of about 35 Mega Bytes when in the highest resolution image mode.  This is my standard camera output file.

RAW (Nikon: .NEF)

This file type (Wiki: RAW) has the smallest amount of image processing done by the camera and so is the most powerful in terms of allowing post processing software to manipulate the image.  Different cameras have different image sensors and treat the resulting data in different proprietary ways.  For example Canon and Nikon have scrambled the data in each of their raw files so competitor can not tell how their cameras work (Nikon calls it's RAW format (NEF).  So to use RAW files you typically need a software add-on that will decode the RAW file from your specific camera.

The RAW file is very much like a negative and gives you a better quality, flexibility and control than using other formats.

The Nikon has an option of outputting a NEF and a jpg file of each shot.  This is not a good idea because if you get thumbnail images of both it's easy to get confused and select the jpg as the image to use in your work flow.  Better to only output the NEF file.

Note that computers know about .tiff, .jpg and other file types and so when you open a folder and select the Thumbs option you see small versions of the images.  The thumbnail versions are not available when working with RAW files so they are harder to work with.  (Sometimes my computer shows a preview of the NEF file)  That's why there are software programs just for managing images.  For example Lightroom (Wiki) supports RAW formats.

Adobe Bridge (comes with Photoshop CS4) allows using two types of meta data to manage images.  Some meta data comes in the EXIF (Wiki) data from the camera and other meta data you can add to an image in Bridge.

Adobe Camera RAW (ACR)

In Photoshop or Bridge the Camera RAW plug-in allows working with RAW files.  Note each brand of camera has their own file format (suffix on the file name such as .NEF for the Nikon RAW file format).  Edits in ACR do not permanently change the image file, but are a process that's applied to it.

There is a lot of control available in ACR of exposure, color balance, and things like fill light as well as adjustment of the histogram.

At the bottom of Camera RAW there's what appears to be a link that allows setting how you want to handle the RAW files and it has options for:
Color Space:
Adobe RGB (1998) (Wiki) - 8 bits/channel.  Better reds than sRGB (see Digital Photography 203: Color Management)
Color Match RGB - early Mac 8 bits/channel
ProPhoto RGB (Wiki) - Kodak 16 bits/channel - But I don't know of anyone who makes prints = poor choice in ACR
sRGB (Wiki) - for monitors, HDTV, etc (the default for most applications)
It seems that 16 bit/c printing does not offer much advantage over 8 bit/c - Hype or Hero Take 2: 16 Bit Printers.
But my guess is that doing all the work up to the printer output at 16 bits/c will result in a higher quality image.
Note the "Print" command and most computer screens are "24 bit color" i.e 8 bits/channel RGB.
Costco only accepts 8 bits/channel image files.

Adobe Versions


Software
ACR DNG

Photoshop 7
1.0


Photoshop CS3
4.6


Photoshop CS4
5.0 to 5.7 (have 5.7.0.213)


Photoshop CS5
 to 6.6


Photoshop Elements 10
Premiere Elements 10
 to 6.6


Lightroom 2 (ver 2.7 for ACR 5.7)
5.7


Lightroom 3.6
6.6





The Nikon D300s can be set to use AdobeRGB and Adobe Camera Raw (ACR) can also be set to output this color space.  It's what I'm using as of 7 Nov 2011.
Depth:  (Wiki)
Above this will be a few lower (-) resolution options and above it will be a few higher resolution (+) options. 
1024 x 1542 pixels (3.4" x  5.1") to 4081 x 6144 pixels (13.6" x 20.5")
These are probably arrived at based on the Bayer color filter (Wiki) (Kodak Patent 3971065).
Resizing in Camera Raw (external link) - they say take the nominal size in ACR and use Photoshop Bicubic Smoother when increasing the image size (and Bicubic Sharper when decreasing size)
Increasing image size in ACR may lead to a higher quality image than when using Photoshop, but that's not clear.

You can increase the resolution in Photoshop IMAGE \ Image Size, but this is done by interpolation so is not really adding anything.
Resolution:
I've set it at 300 pixels/Inch (was at 240 PPI).  300 PPI is for a quality photographic print, 72 is for newspapers).
Sharpen For:  (maybe this is used when the outpput from ACR is not going to Photoshop)
None
Screen
Glossy Paper
Matt Paper
Open in Photoshop as Smart Object
More to learn about this

.DNG (Wiki)

Digital NeGative is an open standard RAW file format developed by Adobe.  It's possible to convert from RAW to DNG.  Some cameras have native .DNG output files, like Hasselblad (Wiki).

When saving DNG files from ACR you have the option of backdating the version number.  This was necessary when sending a file to bragadoon for printing.

    Getting Image Out of Camera

There are a number of common ways to get the digital image out of the camera so something can be done with it.

USB cable

This is the method I use.  The cable is always plugged into my desktop computer so it's quick and easy to let the Nikon Transfer program download only the new photos from the camera to the file where I store them. 

WARNING
It's possible to wear out the USB-B Micro connector in the camera!  Ask how I know this.  The repair cost is over $200 and you loose the use of the camera for a couple of weeks. 

Note: I may take a dozen or more photos a day but more importantly may make 0 to 6 USB connections to the camera per day on a 24/7/365 basis.

I'm now looking into other ways of getting the images out of the camera that involve a wireless connection.  That means no mechanical stuff to wear out.


USB
                        A-male to 5-pin Mini Cable There are three common USB cables all of them have the USB-Amale connector that mates with standard desktop computer USB ports.  The other end may be the USB-B 5-pin Mini Cable, like the one shown that's used on the Nikon Digital cameras, or the USB-B Micro cable.

Memory Cards and Sticks

The Nikon D300s uses two cards, one a Compact Flash and the other an Secure Digital (SD).  It's possible to pull the card from the camera and insert it into a computer, but not all computers will have a compatible card reader, it seems a special adapter is always needed.  For a small number of photos this method is more work than it's worth for me.  But to move all the photos on a card, like after a vacation or all day photo shoot this is a much faster way to move a lot of data.

PictBridge (Wiki)

Many digital cameras support PictBridge which allows the images to be directly printed using a USB cable or a memory card.  I haven't used it because you have no control of the image, it's just whatever the camera image looks like.

Wireless

There are now (2011) two kinds of adapters that allow the camera to be part of an IEEE 802.11 WiFi wireless network (Wiki).  One is a Compact Flash card (see Eye-Fi on the Nikon page).  But it's very picky about what computer you use and what software is already on that computer, It's not working for me.  It's mainly a one way system that downloads photos to your computer as they are taken.  There's no provision for camera control.  $100 price range.

The other is an external hardware adapter like the Nikon WT-4A (Nikon).  This system allows both downloading photos and camera control when using Camera Control Pro 2 (optional).  $1000 price range.

In the not too distant future the Wifi interface will be built into the camera.  This would allow remote flash units to be standardized independent of manufacturer where each one has it's own IP address.  Multiple camera setups and many other now not thought of things will be possible.

HDMI Cable

DSLR cameras that have movie capability typically allow the use of an HDMI cable (Wiki) to view the movie on an HD TV set.  Like the USB cable there are full size and mini ends, with the mini end common for the cameras.  Once connected you can use the HD TV to view still images either as selected by the normal camera viewing method or there might be a slide show mode.

Prints

Possible Future Topics

Flash (external camera mounted & Studio)

Many digital cameras have built-in flash capability and the newer high end DSLR cameras have very sophisticated flash features that go far beyond the first generation Photo-flash equipment.  Nikon has their proprietary Creative Lighting System on the newer cameras and hot-shoe flash units.  But there's not any CLS studio flash equipment.  (see Nikon page CLS)

Direct, bounce, soft box (tent), diffusers, reflectors

Camera Control Software

Allowing remote camera operation or things like a photo booth.  For example Nikon Camera Control Pro 2.

Post Processing Software

Software used after the image has been taken.  The most common being Photoshop, but there are the basics like Paint that comes with Windows.  Adobe has a number of programs that are related to photography and image processing.  Photoshop (Wiki), Lightroom (Wiki) Hasselblad has Phocus for free but requires 64 bit operating system like Windows 7, Bridge (Wiki) and Acrobat (Wiki) are some of these.  See the Wiki page for Adobe Creative Suite for a bunch of them.

By far the most common things I do in Photoshop are:
  • Crop the image
  • Adjust the histogram
  • Erase the background on product photos (this allows shooting without a studio)
DxO - Lens correction software in addition to noise reduction and film simulation

Filters

The common ones are polarizing, neutral density, color (typically used for B&W images), color correction used on a camera or flash, and scientific (like IR).

Bracketing

The camera takes a number of exposures where some parameter is changed.  The most common is different exposures in terms of shutter speed and/or f/stop.  But the output of a flash can be bracketed as can the color balance.

Movie Mode

Using a modern DSLR as a movie camera has many advantages over using a handicam.  Stereo sound is standard when an external mike is used.
The key features are:
  • the ability to change the lens
  • the ability to change the ISO speed.  This allows shooting in ambient light (no flood lights needed)
  • the ability to shoot in HD modes (9:16 image format)  YouTube has increased it's file size limit to allow HD images.

3D Photography

It's fairly straight forward to take a couple of color photos and post process them into a single 3D image that can be seen using Red-Blue glasses.

Related

Digital Photography 201: Stacking Images
Digital Photography 202: Close-Up, Macro & Micro
Digital Photography 203: Color Management
Digital Photography 204: Studio Flash
High Dynamic Range Photography
Photography
Photoflash
Nikon
Ukiah - a number of photos

Costco Photo Processing

So far I've ordered "Enlargements & Posterboards" and a 16x20 canvas.
Note: "Gallery" means one of their stock photos.

Posterboards are just under 0.050" thick and are a very cost effective way to put photographs on your wall.

Note when uploading a file there are two things I have found result in a higher quality print.
1. .TIF files look better than .jpg files (based on the same image and about the same file sizes)
2. Be sure to select FULL Resolution, the default is Fast upload.  I can't understand why they even have the Fast option.
Costco Photo Select
              Full Resolution
Resolution is based on 300 DPI
The camera resolution sets a limit on the size of enlargement that's possible from a single image.

When shooting in RAW (FEF) mode and with AUTO color balance selected the camera may choose a carzy color temperature, like happened when shooting fall tree leaves.  The camera choose 4100K.  The resulting print had almost brown leaves, not bright red.  So that was fixed in Adobe Camera Raw.  This is the first time I've had a problem with the camera messing up the color balance, but it can be fixed in ACR.

Another problem is that the default at Costco is to Auto Correct your color balance.  But you have the option of turning that off just prior to when your order is submitted.  You can click on edit options and modify (1) what gets printed on the back and (2) check a box to turn off Auto Correct.  I've done that and when you come back to the place order page you can see that I've changed both of them.
x

For using Costco store specific color printer profiles, see my Digital Photography 203: Color Management

Uploading Methods

14 Oct 2011

Firefox html

This is the default method I've been using.  But when trying to upload a 75MB tif image the error message when it failed suggested using the single file uploader.

Firefox Java

The single file uploader is a Java application.  It too failed.  The error message suggested using Windows IE and ActiveX.

IE8 ActiveX

There seems to be two phases to the upload.  This too failed.  Calling the support phone number I learned that their idea is the file size limit is 30MB.  I complained that offering large print sizes but not supporting the file size needed for 300 Dots Per Inch means that it's a hollow print.  They suggested that I use 150 DPI (PPI).  The full frame NEF(RAW) image was resized (Bicubic sharper) to 30" wide at 150 pixels/inch and Image/Mode was set to 8-bits/color channel, resulting in a 35MB file size tif image.  This file loaded in about 12 minutes with no problems.

By stitching images toghther a higher resolution file can be built up.  Also RAW images can be stacked to maybe double the resolution.

DSLR cameras have a 1.5 aspect ratio.
Size
Aspect
Ratio
Res
Print
$ ea.
Posterboard
Canvas
$ ea
4x6
1.50 1200x1800
0.13
-
-
5x7
1.40
1500x 2100
0.39
-
-
8x10
1.25
2400x3000
1.49
-
-
8x12
1.50 2400x3600
1.49
-
-
11x14
1.27
3300x4200
2.99
9.99
-
12x16
1.33
3600x4800
--
-
34.99
12x18
1.50 3600x5400
2.99
-
-
8x8
1.00
2400x2400
1.49
-
-
12x12
1.00
3600x3600
2.99
-
-
wallets(4)
?
--
0.39
-
-
16x20
1.25
4800x6000
5.99
14.99
44.99
18x24
1.33
5400x7200
-
-
54.99
20x301
1.50 6000x9000
8.99
24.99
69.99
Note 1: The TIF file made for the 20x30 posterboard print is about 155MB which it too big to upload.  The machines at the Costco store do not accept tif files.  So it looks like the image quality must be degraded by changing to jpg file format and maybe also reducing the file size.
Using Photoshop 7 on the 155MB TIF file to make a jpg file with the highest quality resulted in a file size of 17MB which took 5 minutes for upload at "Full Resolution".

CVS has a photo department that offers a 20x30 poster print for $20, but there are a couple of problems.
It's not clear what they mean by "poster", it may just mean something large rather than poster board.
CVS has a file size limit of 8 MB, way too small to get any decent resolution on an 8x10 print let alone a 20x30.

Elmer's
                      Tack Orange Note:  You can mount posterboard directly to a wall using Elmer's Tack (is Orange) (Wiki: Blu Tack)
Elmer's Tack applied as small balls on the four corners of an 11x14 Costco Posterboard.
It also works on framed pictures that are hung from a wire where they seem to always be
tilted.  One small ball on a lower corner keeps the frame plumb.

If you get it on the front it can stain the posterboard orange, probably also the wall.

Staples
                      Henkel Duck Poster Putty Blue
Staples has Henkel Duck Poster Putty that's blue in color and maybe works better than the Elmer's Tack (photos have fallen down).

I've used this before and like it.
Museum
                      Putty
Museum Putty is not the stuff to use for this.  It's job is anchoring things aginst earthquakes.


Nielsen & Bainbridge
8550 Chetle Ave. Unit B
Whittier, CA 90606
David Trevino - Manager
(562) 986-2000
(562) 968-2038 (fax)
(800) 321-2934

Lytro

"Light Field Camera" - focusing is done after taking the image.
Example from Paulk:




US8279325 System and method for acquiring, editing, generating and outputting video data, Filing date: Nov 20, 2009, 348/345, 396/79, 382/255, 396/89
US8289440 B2 Light field data acquisition devices, and methods of using and manufacturing same, Filing date: Dec 8, 2009,348/349, 348/222.1,348/345,348/340
USD666660 S1 Camera, Filing date: Apr 27, 2011, D16/203
US20120249550 A1 Selective Transmission of Image Data Based on Device Attributes, Filing date: Jun 14, 2012, 345/419, 345/501, 382/276
US2011/0234841 A1 Storage and Transmission of Pictures Including Multiple Frames, Filing date: Jun 8, 2011,  348/222.1; 348/E05.031
13/192,331Reference Objects and/or Facial/Body Recognition, Filing date: Jul 27, 201,  382/118


Patents

6339891 Metal Picture Frame, E. Cox, Jan 22, 2002, 40/785 ; 40/782; 403/294; 403/401 -
Corner joint does not distort when tightening clamp screw (34).
Nielsen &
            Bainbridge Pciture Frame Corner patent 6339891 Fig 1

Archival Metal Frames Photography Collection 
11x14 11x14 16x20 16x20
8x10 5x7 8x10 11x14

  • Artcare 8-ply gallery white mat

  • Artcare 2-ply mount board

  • UV glass
Wholesale Dist:
DeltaHK Mat & Moulding
405 Victory Ave., Suite L
So. San Francisco, CA 94080

Ukiah Area Photo Related

Braggadoon Signs & Graphics
435 North Main Street
Fort Bragg, CA 95437

alan at braggadoon . com

707 964 5050

Can use DNG version _____.


Photo Finish
125 N. State St.
Ukiah, CA 95482
(707) 462-6242

REDIMAT
343 W Robles Ave.
Santa Rosa, CA 95407
(707) 584-9600

Rileystreet Art Supply
103 Maxwell Ct.
Santa Rosa, CA 95401
(707) 526-2416

Tripple-S Camera
260 S. School St.
Ukiah, CA 95482
(707) 462-3163

Links

Mendocino County Photographers Group


Brooke's PRC68, Products for Sale, End 2 Party Government
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